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Week5-1 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 167 Answer to...

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Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 167 Answer to Study Exercise #25 Which city and which province will the Romans destroy? In this case, the wh- phrase (namely ‘which city and which province’) is again not inside the coordinate structure; rather, it is the coordinate structure. Thus applying Wh- movement does not extract a wh- phrase from inside a coordinate structure, and the Coordinate Structure Constraint is not violated. Here is the deep structure with movement shown. Comp S NP Aux VP | Art N will V NP | | | | the Romans destroy NP Conj NP | Art N and Art N | | | | which city which province ——————————————————————————————————————— 19. The universality of the Coordinate Structure Constraint One of the goals sought by linguistics in writing formalized grammars is to locate universals of language. A linguistic universal is a property shared by all human languages. The explanation of linguistic universals is one of the central tasks of linguistic theory. Linguistic universals are proposed and tested against data from the languages of the world; there are thought to be about 8000 of them. 65 No universal has been checked against all 8000, however, at least some proposed universals Some universals that have been proposed are fairly superficial, for example: All languages have nouns and verbs. All languages have wh- questions. All languages have consonants and vowels. All languages use the vowel [a] 66 or something phonetically close to it. 65 This number is, alas, declining steadily; probably the best list of languages is the Ethnologue , at http://www.ethnologue.com/. 66 IPA [a] is more or less the [a] vowel of Spanish, or in some dialects of English the vowel of hot .
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Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 168 Others are more subtle, and emerge only when we have submitted a large number of languages to formal analysis—that is, have constructed grammars for them. As you might expect, it is common for linguists to propose universals, then be forced to abandon or modify their proposal in the face of falsifying evidence. This is only natural, and indeed it is often felt that the job of the linguist is to be a bit “out on a limb”, creating hypotheses about language that are interesting enough to be worth checking. The Coordinate Structure Constraint was first noticed and proposed as a universal by the linguist John R. Ross, who pioneered the study of syntactic islands in the mid 1960’s. The phenomenon of islands attracted a great deal of attention and has been extensively studied and analyzed since then. Today, there seems to be a consensus, based on study of a fair number of languages, is that the Coordinate Structure Constraint is universal. (The doubtful cases are instances in which we’re not sure that the structure in question is really a coordinate structure.) To be more precise: in all languages that can be tested (because they have wh- movement;
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Week5-1 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 167 Answer to...

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