Unformatted text preview: Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 199 Chapter 8: Review of Morphology and Syntax
1. Summary: grammar fragment This is as far as we’re going to get concerning the syntactic analysis of English. It may be useful at this point to summarize the rules and constraints as we developed them. Our grammar has: an overall architecture (see p. 160), providing for the following: a set of phrase structure rules a lexicon, with words bearing subcategorizations, and a principle of lexical insertion A set of transformations: Tag Question Formation Subject/Aux Inversion Wh-Movement Topicalization It-Clefting Further transformations that form morphosyntactic representations: Genitive Case Marking Verbal Agreement A set of three islands Coordinate Structure Constraint Complex NP Constraint Wh- Island Constraint A postsyntactic module of inflectional morphology, including rules of Spell-Out (for contractions) Genitive Inflection (adding -’s) This grammar suffices to cover a fragment of English. As mentioned earlier, a full grammar of English would be vast—and not all the data have even been gathered yet. The rest of this chapter consists of study exercises; these hopefully will be helpful if your teacher puts a midterm exam in the middle of the course. Answers will be found at the end of the chapter. MORPHOLOGY 2. Areas and affiliated skills Word formation: Writing word formation rules, which specify the base, what change in meaning and (perhaps) part of speech is involved. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 200 Constructing iterated derivations, generally “inside out”. Inflectional morphology Finding morphemes and arranging them in position classes Writing inflectional rules, specifying the relevant features of the morphosyntactic representation Ordering the rules correctly to obtain the right affix order The phonological form of inflection and word formation What change in the string of sounds is used to realize the word formation or inflectional process? 3. Persian Verbal Inflection Positive present indicative mixaram mixari mixarad ‘I buy’ ‘you-sing. buy’ ‘he/she buys’ mixarim mixarid mixarand ‘we buy’ ‘you-plur. buy’ ‘they buy’ Negative present indicative nemixaram nemixari nemixarad ‘I do not buy’ ‘you do not buy’ ‘he/she does not buy’ nemixarim nemixarid nemixarand ‘we do not buy’ ‘you-plur. do not buy’ ‘they do not buy’ Positive past indicative xaridam xaridi xarid ‘I bought’ ‘you-sing. bought’ ‘he/she bought’ xaridim xaridid xaridand ‘we bought’ ‘you-plur. bought’ ‘they bought’ Negative past indicative naxaridam naxaridi naxarid ‘I did not buy’ ‘you-sing. did not buy’ ‘he/she did not buy’ naxaridim naxaridid naxaridand ‘we did not buy’ ‘you-plur. did not buy’ ‘they did not buy’ Positive subjunctive bexaram bexari bexarad ‘that I buy’ ‘that you-sing. buy’ ‘that he/she buys’ bexarim bexarid bexarand ‘that we buy’ ‘that you-plur. buy’ ‘that they buy’ Negative subjunctive naxaram ‘that I not buy’ naxarim ‘that we not buy’ Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 201 naxari naxarad ‘that you-sing. not buy’ ‘that he/she not buy’ naxarid naxarand ‘that you-plur. not buy’ ‘that they not buy’ a. Find and gloss the morphemes b. Arrange the morphemes into five position classes. c. Make a set of inflectional rules to derive all these forms. You may assume these features: [Polarity: positive, negative] [Mood:indicative, subjunctive] [Tense: past, present] [Person: 1, 2, 3] [Number: Singular, Plural] d. Show that your rules work by deriving all six third singular forms. e. Which orderings of the rules are needed? 4. English word formation full squeamish lurid profound 5. Compounding Use this rule, from the xxx Readings English Compound Formation (word formation rule) [ X1 ]Noun + [ X2 ]Noun [ [ X ]Noun [ X ] Noun ]Noun Meaning: “an X2 that has something to do with X1.” to derive tigerbird, law degree requirements, eggplant plant 6. Hungarian word formation Phonetic symbols:  = “aw”, with lip rounding;  is rather like “ny”;  marks a long vowel,  goes before the stressed syllable; [ø] is like German “ö” or French “eu”. all igzol kid mutt ‘stand’ ‘justify’ ‘publish’ ‘show’ allva igzolva kidva muttva ‘stand, scaffolding’ ‘certificate’ ‘publication’ ‘specimen, spectacle’ fullness squeamishness luridness profoundness with a different vowel; ignore the vowel issue for now. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 202 køt ker ‘tie’ ‘ask for’ køtve kérveː ‘bond, security’ ‘questionnaire’ Write a rule of word formation. The hardest part is specifying the meaning. 7. English word formation a merry chase a fifty-foot drop The canoeists found that between Racquette Lake and Forked Lake was not a difficult carry. He reached the water fountain and took a good long drink. 8. English word formation kitchen pipe rose statue kitchenette pipette rosette statuette 9. Luiseño Inflection(S. California) Write morphological rules to cover inflection. You will have to make up your own morphosyntactic representations. Hint: think about whether a noun is something you could ever lose, and make up a feature to describe this. umakinaki numakinaki upanki pupanki nuxardinki puxardinki nunotki uaki ‘your car’ ‘my car’ ‘your bread’ ‘his bread’ ‘my garden’ ‘his garden’ ‘my boss’ ‘your wife’82 umata numata ukami pukami nuna una ‘your back’ ‘my back’ ‘your son’ ‘his son’ ‘my father’ ‘your father’ 10. Applying Word Formation Rules in Order Find two meanings for overfillable and provide derivations for both. To these may be added the somewhat startling nupeli ‘my dish’, pupeli ‘her dish’; grammar has an arbitrary side…
82 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 203 11. Chamorro Infixation Formalize using the symbols V, C, and numeral subscripts. State in words what your rule does. lii hatsa saan hasu faisin ‘to see’ ‘to lift’ ‘to tell’ ‘to think’ ‘to ask’ linii hinatsa sinaan hinasu finaisin ‘(the) thing seen’ ‘(the) thing lifted’ ‘(the) thing told’ ‘thought’ ‘question’ 12. Yucatec Reduplication Symbols: t͡ʃ as in church t͡s like Betsy but is just one sound, not two k’ is k with extra oral pressure (“ejective”), t j is IPA for y ʔ is glottal stop, heard in the middle of uh-oh. sak tÉitÉ tÉak k’as natÉs’ haj natÉ sis suutÉs’ jaab ‘white’ ‘hard’ ‘red’ ‘bad’ ‘near’ ‘thin’ ‘far’ ‘cool’ ‘sour’ ‘many’ sasak tÉitÉitÉ tÉatÉak k’ak’as nanatÉs’ hahaj nanatÉ sisis suusuutÉs’ jaajaab ‘very white’ ‘very hard’ ‘very red’ ‘very bad’ ‘very near’ ‘very thin’ ‘very far’ ‘very cool’ ‘very sour’ ‘very many’ 13. Obligatory Expression In My cat jumped. specify two cases of obligatory expression (inflectional system of English forces you to communicate particular information) 14. Organization of the grammar: morphology In the view of some linguists, the following is not only an impossible word of English, but violates a fundamental principle of grammar. Explain. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 204 *personsology ‘the study of collections of more than one person’ 15. Normative grammar Briefly describe a matched-guise experiment. SYNTAX 16. Skills Parsing sentences, particularly knowing where to attach modifiers... Using phrase structures to check if your structure is “compliant”. Establishing the phrase structure rules needed for new languages. Method: parse the sentences first, based on meaning, then make a short, clean set of rules using ( ) and ( )*. Applying various transformations, given in the text. Showing how the various island constraints rule out sentences. 17. Syntax: parsing English phrase structure rules: S NP NP VP VP PP S NP VP PP S S V Parse: a. His brother and his wife’s book’s excessive length meant that it would cost a lot. b. They awarded the key to the city (explicate both meanings) NP (Aux) VP Art ¯ NP (AP)* N (PP)*(S) Pronoun V (NP) (NP) (PP)* (S) ¯ V AP P NP (Comp) S NP (Conj NP)* VP (Conj VP)* PP (Conj PP)* S (Conj S)* S (Conj S)* V (Conj V)* Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 205 18. Syntax: Constituency Testing As noted earlier, It-Clefting can be used to show what is an NP or PP, since it “targets” these phrases; that is, it is a potential constituency test. Use this test to justify the constituency of the two meanings of the sentence (b) in question 17. 19. Syntax: Case Marking Apply the case marking rule below to the structure you gave for sentence (a) in question 17 above. English Genitive Case Marking In the configuration shown: NP1 NP2 ... assign the feature [Case:Genitive] to the morphosyntactic representation of the rightmost word in NP2. You may assume that when the sentence is turned over to the component of inflectional morphology, the following morphological rule applies: Genitive Realization Suffix -’s when the morphosyntactic representation contains [Case:Genitive]. 20. Subcategorization Provide and justify subcategorization frames for: a. opinion b. transform (as a verb) c. expire 21. Subcategorization; Under/Overgeneration a. Explain why the grammar in this book would not generate these sentences: *We took. *We own. b. Suppose for the moment that we had a grammar that did generate these sentences. Would this be a case of overgeneration or ungeneration? Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 206 22. Syntax: Writing your own phrase structure rules The following data are from a problem set book by Jeannette Witucki. It’s a pretty good book (sadly, never formally published), but you should remember that Witucki isn’t necessarily teaching exactly the same syntactic theory as me, and not all the loose ends will necessarily get tied up here. On the test, I will probably make up a fictional language, sacrificing realism for gradability. The language here is Sango, a creole83 language spoken in the Central African Republic. The word-by-word glosses are by me, guessing as best as I could from the sentence glosses, which are Witucki’s. 1. mbi t mbeni I eat some ‘I eat some meat’ mbi k t I prog. eat ‘I am eating meat today’ yama meat yama meat 2. la day so this 3. mbi mu na m I give to you ‘I give you many thanks’ lo mu na he give to ‘He gives him water’ lo him mersi thanks mingi many 4. ngu water m you 5. lo k mu na he prog. give to ‘He is giving you money’ i mu mbeni atm we give some stones ‘We take some stones there’ nginza money 6. ka there 7. mbi mu na mrng ti I give to child of ‘I gave money to a child of his.’ lo him nginza money A creole language arises when a simple, spur-of-the-moment contact language arising among speakers of distinct languages (here, French and Ngbandi) is learned by children and elaborated (via Universal Grammar, some think) into a full-fledged, fully-expressive language with native speakers. 83 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 207 8. m zia ngu na you put water to ‘You put water on the fire’ wa fire 9. m zia mbeni yama na you put some meat to ‘You put some meat on the ground’ ala mu na lo they give to him ‘They gave this name to him. ere name sese ground 10. so this 11. ala zia yama so na they put meat this to ‘They put this meat on the ground’ lo zia ala he put them ‘He put them in jail’ mbi zia mbeni I put some ‘I put some stones here’ mbi zia ala I put them ‘I put them here today’ i faa na we kill to ‘We kill animals’ i na m we to you ‘you and I kill animals’ na to atm stone kanga jail sese ground 12. 13. da here 14. da here yama meat la day so this 15. 16. faa kill na to yama meat yama meat 17. i na ala faa we to them kill ‘They and I kill animals’ i na lo we to him ‘He and I kill chickens’ faa kill na to knd chicken 18. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 208 19. i faa knd mingi we kill chicken many ‘We kill many chickens’ ala faa woga mingi they kill antelope many ‘They kill many antelope to eat’ ti of t eating? 20. 21. mbi faa knd ka na I kill chicken there to ‘I killed a chicken there in the tree’ m wara mbi ka you find I there You found me there today’ mbi wara kli I find man ‘I found my husband’ mbi wara ita I find sibling ‘I found my sister’ mbi wara ita I find sibling ‘I found my brother’ ti of la day keke tree 22. so this 23. mbi I 24. ti of mbi I ti of wale woman kli man 25. ti of mbi I ti of 23. Recursiveness Find a recursive loop in the phrase structure rules you just developed. If there is none, so state. 24. Case marking Write rules to mark case in this pseudo-English. You should write both syntactic rules of case marking, to put the right morphosyntactic features in the right places, and rules of inflectional morphology, to actually add the suffixes. You will find it helpful first to parse the sentences. Other than the case marking, the language is just like real English. a. Johnwa gave Maryni a booko. b. The king of Englandwa sold the queenni a book of poemso. c. The kingwa sent the princeni of Wales a lettero. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 209 d. e. f. g. h. The key to the doorwa is of great importance. Fredwa thinks that the seller of fishwa read the papero. Wewa told the daughterni of Mary a story about miceo. Iwa sang a song about birdso to Alice. Alicewa made the claim that shewa was leavingo. 25. Constituency testing Use the It-Clefting constituency test to determine if the underlined sequences of words are constituents. a. I put the key under the mat. b. I own the key under the mat. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 210 Answers
26. Answer to #3, Persian Verbal Inflection a. Morphemes: ne-, namibexar -id -am -i -ad, - -im -id -and negative present imperative ‘buy’ past first person singular second person singular third person singular first person plural second person plural third person plural b. There are five slots. Negative Misc. nenamibeStem xar Tense -id Agreement -am -i -ad/- -im -id -and c. Rules, in order Miscellaneous Rule Prefix bemiwhen when [Mood:Subjunctive, Polarity:Positive] [Mood:Indicative, Tense:Present] Negative Rule Prefix nenawhen [Polarity:Negative, Tense:Present] all other [Polarity:Negative] Tense Rule Suffix -id when [Tense:Past] Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 211 Agreement Rule Suffix -am -i - -ad -im -id -and when when when all other when when when [Person: 1, Number:Singular] [Person: 2, Number:Singular] [Person: 3, Number:Singular, Tense:Past] [Person: 3, Number:Singular] [Person: 1, Number:Plural] [Person: 2, Number:Plural] [Person: 3, Number:Plural] d. Deriving “(s)he buys”: xar mixar — — mixarad
[ Tense:Present, Polarity:Positive, Mood:Indicative, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc.: , Negative rule Tense Rule Agreement Rule (, , ) Deriving “(s)he does not buy”: xar mixar nemixar — nemixarad
[ Tense:Present, Polarity:Negative, Mood:Indicative, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc. Rule (, ) Negative rule (, ) Tense Rule Agreement Rule (, , ) Deriving “(s)he bought”: xar — — xarid —
[ Tense:Past, Polarity:Positive, Mood:Indicative, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc. Rule Negative Rule Tense Rule () Agreement Rule Deriving “(s)he did not not buy”: xar — naxar naxarid —
[ Tense:Past, Polarity:Negative, Mood:Indicative, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc. Rule Negative Rule (, ) Tense Rule () Agreement Rule Deriving “that (s)he buy”: xar bexar — — bexarad
[ Polarity:Positive, Mood:Subjunctive, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc. Rule (, ) Negative Rule Tense Rule Agreement Rule Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 212 Deriving “that (s)he not buy”: xar — naxar — bexarad e. Ordering: The prefix rules must apply in the order shown, else would get *mi-ne- rather than the correct form ne-mi-. The suffix rules must apply in the order shown, else we would get (for first singular forms) *-am-id, rather than the correct -id-am. 27. Answer to #4, English Word Formation [ X ]Adj [ [ X ]Adj ness ]Noun Meaning: “the quality of being Adjective” 28. Answer to #5, Compounding tigerbird: Given the existence of [ tiger ]Noun and [ bird ]Noun, we obtain [ [ tiger ]Noun [ bird ] Noun ]Noun, which means “a bird having something to do with tigers” law degree requirements: Step 1: Given the existence of [ law ]Noun and [ degree ]Noun, we obtain [ [ law ]Noun [ degree ] Noun ]Noun, which means “a degree having something to do with the law”, in this case “degree awarded for the study of law” Step 2: Given the existence of [ [ law ]Noun [ degree ] Noun ]Noun and [ requirement ]Noun, we obtain [ [ [ [ law ]Noun [ degree ] Noun ]Noun]Noun [ requirement ] Noun ]Noun, which means “a requirement have to do with a law degree”, in this case “requirements needed to obtain a law degree” Step 3: a rule of inflection morphological gives us the plural law degree requirements. 29. Answer to #6, Hungarian Word Formation [ X ]V [ [ X ]V va ]Noun Meaning: “the result or instrument of Verbing” -ve is due to phonology, a rule of Vowel Harmony
[ Polarity:Negative, Mood:Subjunctive, Person:3, Number:Singular] Misc. Rule Negative Rule () Tense Rule Agreement Rule (, ) Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 213 30. Answer to #7, English Word Formation [ X ]Verb [ [ X ]Verb ]Noun Meaning: “an instance of Verbing” 31. Answer to #8, English Word Formation [ X ]Noun [ [ X ette ]Noun ]Noun Meaning: “a little Noun or thing having to do with Noun” 32. Answer to #9, Luiseño The data illustrate the concept of inalienability, an inflectional category in many languages. A thing is inalienably possessed if you could never truly be rid of it: your relatives, the parts of the body. Two rules are needed, which could apply in either order: Person-Number Marking X nu X X u X X pu X where morphsyntactic representation contains [Number:Sing, Pers:1] where morphsyntactic representation contains [Number:Sing, Pers:2] where morphsyntactic representation contains [Number:Sing, Pers:3] Inalienability Marking X X ki where morphosyntactic representation contains [Alienable:True] 33. Answer to #10, Applying Rules of Word Formation in Order fill fillable overfillable root [ X ]Verb [ [ X ]Verb able ]Adj Meaning: ‘able to be Verbed’ [ X ]Adj [ over [ X ]Adj ]Adj Meaning: ‘excessively A’ ‘too fillable’; said perhaps of a conveniently wide-brimmed whiskey flask belonging to a heavy drinker compare: dreamable, drinkable; overeager, overproud fill overfill overfillable root [ X ]Verb [ over [ X ]Verb ]Verb [ X ]Verb [ [ X ]Verb able ]Adj Meaning: ‘Verb too much’ Meaning: ‘able to be Verbed’ Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 214 ‘liable to be overfilled’; said perhaps of a car engine that admits a dangerous excess of motor oil because the dipstick gives an inaccurate compare: overeat, overdress; (same examples for -able) 34. Answer to #11, Chamorro Infixation Assumed to be word formation. [ C X ]Verb [[ C in X ]Verb ]Noun 12 1 2 Meaning: “thing that is Verbed” In other words, “count off the first consonant, and place -in- right after it.” 35. Answer to #13, Yucatec Reduplication Assumed to be word formation. [ X C ]Adj [[ X X C ]Adj ]Adj 12 11 2 Meaning: “thing that is Verbed” in other words: “copy all but the last consonant, and put the copy before the original.” 36. Answer to #, Obligatory Expression Cat is singular—the sentence means specifically one cat. This is because English nouns must appear with either [Number:Singular] or [Number:Plural] in their morphosyntactic representations. Jumped is past tense; tense must be marked in the morphosyntactic representation of the main verb of a sentence. 37. Answer to #14, Organization of the Grammar: Morphology In *personsology, a suffix for word formation, -ology, has been added “outside” of (hence, “after”) an inflectional suffix. If word formation precedes lexical insertion and inflection follows it, this should not be possible 38. Answer to #15, Normative Grammar The core of a matched guise experiment is to have a bilingual or bidialectal person say essentially the same thing in both of the language varieties she speaks, and then have experimental subjects rate both voices for various traits—honesty, intelligence, friendliness, etc.—without knowing that the “two” speakers are actually one. The idea is to get a controlled evaluation of what people think about the varieties as such. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 215 39. Answer to #17, Syntax: Parsing a. Note that since the inflectional suffix -’s is added by rules of morphology, it is not placed in the tree generated by the syntax. See below for how it is added. S VP NP NP S ¯ NP NP NP S VP NP NP | N Adj N V CompPro Aux V Art N | | | | | | | | | | book excessive length meant that it would cost a lot. NP NP | | Pro N Conj Pro N | | | | | His brother and his wife For the -’s, see a later exercise in this section. b. S VP NP PP NP | Pro V Art | | | They awarded the NP N | key P | to Art | the N | city This is the meaning, “They awarded the key to the city (to someone, as an honor).” To the city specifies what kind of key. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 216 S VP PP NP NP | Pro V Art N | | | | They awarded the key NP P | to Art | the N | city This is the meaning, “The city was award the key (perhaps an important historical artifact for the municipal museum.” To the city specifies what kind of act of awarding. 40. Answer to #18, Syntax: Constituency Testing In the first reading, the key to the city is held to be an NP; that is a constituent. It-Clefting can only apply to constituents. When we cleft the key to the city: It was [ the key to the city ]NP that they awarded ___. we only get the reading where to the city specifies which key. In the second reading, the key and to the city are separate constituents, and they can each be It-Clefted on their own: It was [ the key ]NP that they awarded ___ to the city. It was [to the city ]PP that they awarded the key ___. However, in each case, Clefting removes the ambiguity. It can only affect constituents; so it reveals the constituent structure of the basic sentence for each of the two meanings. 41. Answer to #19, Syntax: Case Marking I’ll show just the relevant NP. Items referred to in the rule are shown in boldface. We are looking for: Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 217 NP1 NP2 ... and are putting the feature [Case:Genitive] on the rightmost word of NP2. Here is one application: NP1 NP2 NP NP NP NP NP | | Pro N Conj Pro N N Adj N | | | | | | | | His brother and his wife book excessive length [Case:Gen] Here is the other application: NP NP1 NP2 NP NP NP NP | | Pro N Conj Pro N N Adj N | | | | | | | | His brother and his wife book excessive length [Case:Gen][Case:Gen] These are realized later in the morphology as wife’s and book’s. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 218 42. Answer to #20, Subcategorization a. opinion [ ___ (S) ] and [ ___ (PP) ] ¯ Bill’s opinion Bill’s opinion of Fred Bill’s opinion that Fred will win. b. transform (as a verb) [ ___ NP (PP) ] and [ ___ PP ] *Fred transformed. Fred transformed the field. Fred transformed the apple into a pear. Fred transformed into a dwarf. c. expire [ ___ ] Time expired. *Time expired the men. *Time expired to (or: of, above) the men. 43. Answer to #21, Syntax: Subcategorization; Under/Overgeneration a. *We took is bad because take subcategorizes for an obligatory NP object. Its frame is: [ ___ NP ] The grammar won’t generate *We took because take cannot be inserted into the relevant tree, which is: S NP | Pro | we VP | V | ___ The explanation for *We own is identical. If the grammar did generate *We took, *We own, it would be overgeneration: outputting examples that are ungrammatical. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 219 44. Answer to #22, Sango Phrase Structure Rules Hoping for a slightly cleaner answer I made a couple of perhaps dubious assumptions: la so ‘today’ is a fixed expression, i.e. a compound, as in English. I am classifying this as an Adverb. I am treating k as an Aux. I am treating the prenominal expression mbeni ‘some’ as an Adjective, letting postnominal so and mingi be in the position for Articles. The analytic strategy is: Provide conjecture trees for each sentence. Write down “sketch” phrase structure rules, that is, exactly what is needed to generate the proposed tree. At the end, collate, generalize and simplify the rules using ( ) and ( )*. 1. mbi t mbeni I eat some Pro V A ‘I eat some meat’ yama meat N Rules needed: S NP VP NP Pro VP V NP NP AP N AP A Out on a limb: “some” as Adjective, since it looks like in general, the Articles follow the noun. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 220 2. mbi k t I prog. eat Pro Aux V ‘I am eating meat today’ yama meat N la so day this Adv............. S NP Aux VP NP Pro (lots of these, I won’t repeat this one) VP V NP AdvP AdvP Adv NP N 3. mbi mu na m I give to you Pro V P Pro ‘I give you many thanks’ mersi thanks N mingi many Art V V PP NP PP P NP NP N Art Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 221 4. lo mu na he give to Pro V P ‘He gives him water’ lo him Pro ngu water N VP V PP NP PP P NP NP N 5. (many of these, won’t repeat) (many of these, won’t repeat) m you Pro nginza money N lo k mu na he prog. give to Pro Aux V P ‘He is giving you money’ S NP Aux VP VP V PP NP (many of these, won’t repeat) Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 222 6. i mu mbeni atm we give some stones Pro V Adj N ‘We take some stones there’ ka there Adv V V NP AdvP AdvP Adv (won’t repeat) 7. mbi mu na mrng I give to child Pro V P N ‘I gave money to a child of his.’ ti of P lo him Pro nginza money N VP V PP NP NP N PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 223 8. m zia ngu na you put water to Pro V N P ‘You put water on the fire’ wa fire N VP V NP PP 9. m zia mbeni yama na you put some meat to Pro V Adj N P ‘You put some meat on the ground’ sese ground N VP V NP PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 224 10. ala mu na lo they give to him Pro V P Pro ‘They gave this name to him. ere name N so this Art V V PP NP NP N Art 11. ala zia yama so na they put meat this to Pro V N Art P ‘They put this meat on the ground’ sese ground N VP V NP PP NP N Art (won’t repeat this one) Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 225 12. lo zia ala he put them Pro V Pro ‘He put them in jail’ na to P kanga jail N VP V NP PP 13. mbi zia mbeni I put some Pro V Adj ‘I put some stones here’ atm stone N da here Adv VP V NP AdvP 14. mbi zia ala I put them Pro V Pro ‘I put them here today’ da here Adv la so today........ Adv Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 226 VP V NP AdvP AdvP 15. i faa na we kill to Pro V P ‘We kill animals’ yama meat N VP V PP 16. i na m we to you Pro P Pro ‘you and I kill animals’ faa kill V na to P yama meat N NP Pro PP VP V PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 227 Note unusual construction, with a PP modifying a Pronoun within NP; not possible in English. 17. i na ala faa we to them kill Pro P Pro V ‘They and I kill animals’ na to P yama meat N Nothing new in PS rules. 18. i na lo we to him Pro P Pro ‘He and I kill chickens’ Ditto. i faa knd Pro V N ‘We kill many chickens’ faa kill V knd chicken N 19. mingi Art No new rules. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 228 20. ala faa woga mingi they kill antelope many Pro V N Art ‘They kill many antelope to eat’ ti of P t eating? N VP V NP PP 21. mbi faa knd ka na I kill chicken there to Pro V N Adv P ‘I killed a chicken there in the tree’ keke tree N I suggest that the PP ne keke is modifying the Adverb ka. Thus we need to put our Adverbs inside Adverb Phrases (adjusting the previous rules that used bare Adverbs), and set up an Adverb Phrase rule. VP V NP AdvP AdvP Adv PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 229 22. m wara mbi ka you find I there Pro V Pro Adv ‘You found me there today’ la so today......... Adv A fairly clear case of two Adverbs. VP V NP AdvP AdvP 23. mbi wara kli I find man Pro V N ‘I found my husband’ ti of P mbi I Pro NP N PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 230 24. mbi wara ita I find sibling Pro V N ‘I found my sister’ ti of P mbi I Pro ti of P wale woman N NP Pro PP PP I assume that each PP is independently a modifier of ita ‘sibling’: 25. mbi wara ita I find sibling Pro V N ‘I found my brother’ Just like #24. ti of P mbi I Pro ti of P kli man N This completes the gathering of the “sketch” phrase structure rules. We first collate them, removing duplicates, like this: S NP Aux VP S NP VP NP AP N NP N NP N Art NP N PP NP Pro NP Pro PP NP Pro PP PP VP V NP VP V NP AdvP VP V NP AdvP AdvP VP V NP PP VP V PP Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 231 VP V PP NP AdvP Adv AdvP Adv PP AP A then we can use the abbreviatory notations, and a little guess work, to produce a more general grammar: S NP (Aux) VP N NP (AP)* Pro (PP)* (Art) PP P NP VP V (PP)(NP)(PP)(AdvP)* AdvP Adv (PP) The most interesting of these is the VP rule. There are evidently VP’s with both NP PP and PP NP order. My guess would be that this is determined by subcategorization; that is Subcategorizes for [ ___ NP PP ]: Subcategorizes for [ ___ PP NP ]: 45. Answer to #45, Recursiveness The one loop appears to be a two-rule case:
N NP (Adj)* Pro (PP)* (Art) zia ‘put’ mu ‘give’ PP P NP It’s virtually certain that Sango has subordinate clauses, which would produce at least one further loop, as in English. 46. Answer to #24, Case marking Syntactic rules of case marking Mark the rightmost word of the subject NP (daughter of S) as [Case:Nominative]. Mark the rightmost word of the last object NP (last NP daughter of VP) as [Case:Accusative]. Mark the head of the first NP, when there are two of them in VP, as [Case:Dative]. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 232 Rules of inflectional morphology Suffix -wa when [Case:Nominative] Suffix -o when [Case:Accusative] Suffix -ni when [Case:Dative] Note: the nominative and the accusative here (but not the dative) are very roughly as in Japanese. 47. Answer to #25, constituency testing a. I put the key under the mat. *It was the key under the mat I put. So, the key under the mat is not a constituent. (It’s actually an NP followed by a separate PP.) b. I own the key under the mat. It is the key under the mat that I own. So, the key under the mat is a constituent. (under the mat is part of this NP, modifying key) ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course LING 20 taught by Professor Schutze during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.
- Fall '08