Week6-1 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 240 Study...

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Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 240 Study Exercise #29: The predicate-argument structure of As- phrases The particle as has interesting syntactic and semantic behavior, in which the phrase structure again mismatches the semantics. Some sample sentences: 0. We consider him as being eccentric. 1. They regard him as praiseworthy. 2. We judge it as unfortunate that he visited Mary. 3. We regard him as appearing to be sick. We could accommodate as phrases with the following phrase structure rules: VP V (NP) As P (S ¯) AsP as NP PP VP Furthermore, we must add rules of inflectional morphology that would ensure that the VP that is part of an as -phrase, the verb is marked to be a present participle (V- ing ). Only a few verbs such as regard and consider subcategorize for as- phrases. What is interesting semantically is that as-phrases express propositions without including any S ¯. For example, in the first sentence above, we are not doing anything to him ; rather, we are holding a belief about him, that is, we are the mental experiencers of a proposition involving him. This idea could be expressed with the predicate-argument structure below: CONSIDER ( ( Experiencer we ) ( Proposition ECCENTRIC ( Characterized he ) ) The proposition is, essentially, “he is eccentric”, without any verb or S ¯ encoding this proposition. Assign predicate-argument structures to sentences #1-3 above. Note that the it in #2 is pleonastic.
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Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 241 Answers to Study Exercise #29 1. REGARD ( ( Experiencer they ) ( Proposition PRAISEWORTHY ( Characterized he ) ) 2. JUDGE ( ( Experiencer we ) ( Proposition UNFORTUNATE ( Proposition VISIT ( Visitor he ), ( Visitee Mary ) ) ) ) 3. REGARD ( ( Experiencer we ) ( Proposition APPEAR ( Proposition SICK ( IllPerson he ) ) ) ) ———————————————————————————————— ANAPHORA 4. Defining Anaphora All languages have pronouns. For example, these are the pronouns of English in their various forms: Nominative Objective Genitive I we me us my our you you you you your your he/she/it they him/her/it them his/her/its their Predicative Genitive 89 Reflexive mine ours myself ourselves yours yours yourself yourselves his/hers/— theirs himself/herself/itself themselves Pronouns are like nouns, but they get their reference from context—either the linguistic context, or the situational context of speech. As already noted, the English pronouns are distinguish by morphosyntactic features of Number, Case, and Person, and in the third person, for gender. Their meanings are determined entirely by these features. There are also pro-forms for other parts of speech. The phrases do it and do so are pro- forms for Verb Phrases: I wanted to [ teach Linguistics 865 ] VP but was too busy with other courses to [ do so ] VP . I had to [ teach Linguistics 497 ]
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course LING 20 taught by Professor Schutze during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.

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Week6-1 - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 240 Study...

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