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Unformatted text preview: Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 299 7. Some toughies from English The hardest factor in phonetic transcription is that we tend to hear best the phonetic distinctions of languages we speak. In fact, it’s typically the distinctions heard in infancy and toddlerhood that are the most noticeable — experiments have shown that the circuitry for vowel detection, for example, is already being “tuned” to the ambient language by the age of six months. Thus, if there are English distinctions that you didn’t acquire early on, you may find them tough. I only apologize a little bit for this: linguistics training necessarily involves practice in hearing such distinctions, even if it’s hard! To make the course a bit fairer I will render some “exotic” cases from American dialects, which I hope will be hard for everybody! Here are cases of distinctions that may be difficult. They are posted at the same Web page mentioned above. feet fit Luke look thy die writer rider caught cot [fit] [ft] [luke] [lk] [a] [da]  [a] [kt] [kt] Clues:  shorter than [i]. Spoken slowly,  becomes . Clues:  shorter than [u]. Spoken slowly,  becomes . Clue: sit up close and lip-read.  usually has tongue protrusion. Clue: [a] has more jaw lowering. Clue:  has a fish-like lip-rounding gesture. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 300 THE PRODUCTION OF SOUNDS IN THE VOCAL TRACT The human vocal tract can produce thousands of audibly distinct sounds. Of these, only a subset are actually used in human languages. Of this subset, some sounds are much more common than others. For example, almost every language has a [t]-like sound, while very few languages have a retroflex click or a bilabial trill (demonstrations). Any one language uses only a fairly small inventory of speech sounds. 8. Vocal tract anatomy To understand how sounds are made, one needs to have an idea of the location and shape of the articulatory organs. Here is a diagram; a so-called “mid-sagittal” section: hard palate nasal cavity alveolar ridge upper lip teeth velar port uvula tongue body (dorsum) oral cavity velum (soft palate) lower lip tongue tip tongue blade jaw pharynx larynx trachea The above is a schematic diagram; the hypothetical speaker is saying something like  (nasalized “uh”). Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 301 The information for images has traditionally been obtained by dissection of cadavers, or later, from X-rays. More recently, magnetic resonance imaging makes possible the fully safe examination of living subjects, with images like the following: American English [l] American English  A evidently nasalized , showing more of the head and neck105 8.1 The parts of the vocal tract The three major regions of the vocal tract are the nasal cavity, the oral cavity (less pretentiously, the mouth), and the pharynx, which is located behind the tongue but above the larynx. First two images: from www.linguistics.ubc.ca/isrl/Gick_Whalen_Kang(SPS5); research from Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT. Last image: http://web.mit.edu/albright/www/; the Web image of Prof. Adam Albright, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 105 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 302 The most crucial organ of speech is the tongue. Bear in mind that just looking in a mirror gives you a poor idea of the shape of the human tongue, because you can only see the tongue’s forward extension. In reality, the tongue is more of a lump; when at rest it is fairly round in shape except for highly visible flange up front. The round main section is extremely mobile and flexible, and can move in all directions. The parts of the tongue that we will refer to are the tip (or apex), the blade (= the forward flange), and the body (the main rounded part). I will now discuss the roof of the mouth, going from front to back. The lips and teeth need no comment other than that they are both important for speech. The next important landmark, going backward, is the alveolar ridge. Most people can feel this ridge by placing the tongue a little further back in the mouth than the upper inside edge of the front teeth. The alveolar ridge forms a useful “boundary line” on the upper surface of the mouth. The expanse behind the alveolar ridge is called the palate. The palate is divided into a hard, bony section in front called the hard palate and a soft fleshy section in back called the soft palate or velum (Latin for “sail”). The velum is mobile. If you know how to produce nasalized vowels (as in French), you can see it moving by looking in a mirror, placing your tongue as low as possible, and alternating between saying nasalized and normal vowels. The main function of the velum in speech is to control nasality. Most often, the velum is raised up to block of the nasal passage. When it is lowered, air may pass out the nose and we get a nasal sound. The little hanging object at the tip of the velum, made famous by screaming cartoon characters, is called the uvula. It is used in sound production in many languages (for example, French, Persian, and Arabic), but not in English. The pharynx is the space behind the tongue, invisible to us unless we use a mirror. This space can be made smaller by retracting the tongue body down into it. 8.2 The larynx At the bottom of the pharynx is the larynx, or voice box. This is a highly complex structure of cartilage, muscle, and ligaments. The crucial elements of the larynx are the vocal cords.106 These are not really cords, but flaps that come in from both sides. The vocal cords can close off the flow of air to varying degrees. The gap between the vocal cords is called the glottis. Larynx with vocal cords in position to vibrate: glottis (narrow slit suitable for vibration) vocal cords
106 Not: chords. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 303 Open larynx (vocal cords spread): glottis (wide open) vocal cords There are basically four things that the vocal cords can do. (1) If they are spread far apart, we get normal breathing. (2) If they are brought tightly together, the airflow is blocked. If the blockage is then quickly released, we get what is called a glottal stop. This is the sound that begins each syllable of the expression “uh-oh” [o]; its IPA symbol is . (3) If the vocal cords are brought close but not touching, we get an [h]. (4) If the vocal cords are just barely touching, they vibrate, producing what is called voicing. Voicing accompanies most vowels and many consonants (except when we whisper), and is the most important source of sound in speech. Numerous speech organs are actively controlled by the speaker in the production of speech. In normal speech, the following organs are active: the lips, the tongue blade, the tongue body, the velum, the jaw, the larynx (up and down), and the vocal cords. X-ray movies of speech show that these speech organs move extremely rapidly and with great precision.107 Speaking is one of the most complex physical feats people can perform, yet we do it without even thinking about it. 9. Describing consonant articulation To describe a consonant, one normally describes three things: Place of articulation. All consonants involve a constriction somewhere in the vocal tract. To specify a consonant one must state where this constriction is made; this is the place of articulation. Manner of articulation. This indicates the kind of constriction that is made—roughly, how narrow it is, and the acoustic result. Voicing— whether the vocal cords are vibrating during the production of a consonant. A good way to detect voicing is to put your hand firmly on top of your head when you say a word. If you do this while you say “za”, you will feel buzzing all the way through. If you do this for “sa”, you will feel buzzing only after the [s] is over. 107 For a moving image of the vocal tract, consult http://www.speech.kth.se/~olov/Bilder/MRIs_2D.gif. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 304 9.1 Manner of articulation We will cover six manners of articulation. (a) In a stop, the airflow is momentarily blocked off completely (i.e. “stopped”), then released. The stops of English are [p] pop [b] Bob [t] tot [d] Dad [k] kick [g] gag (Keywords:) Note that I have arranged the six stops in rows and columns, going by place of articulation and voicing. (b) In a fricative, one forms a narrow constriction at the place of articulation. The air passing through the constriction makes a hissing noise. English has nine fricatives: [f] fife [v] vat  thin [ð] thou [s] Sis [z] zoo [ʃ] shoe [ʒ] Asia [h] he (c) An affricate is a rapid sequence of a stop and a fricative made at roughly the same place of articulation with a single gesture. Affricates can usually be considered a subclass of the stops. English has two affricates, [tʃ] (as in church) and [dʒ] (as in judge). (d) In a nasal consonant, the velum is lowered, allowing air to escape out the nose. The great majority of nasals have a complete blockage within the mouth at the same time. The places of articulation for nasals are usually the same as those for stops. The nasal consonants of English are [m] (Mom), [n] (none), and [ŋ], which is the last sound of young. (e) In an approximant, the vocal tract is relatively open, so that air flows freely and there is no frication noise. Approximants are normally divided into lateral and central. In a lateral approximant, the air flows around the sides of the tongue; [l] is a lateral. In a central approximant, air flows through a central channel. English has three central approximants: [j] occurs in words like youth [w] occurs in words like witch108 A small number of American English speakers have an additional central approximant, [ʍ], which is a voiceless version of [w]. It occurs in words spelled with wh, like which.
108 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 305 [ɹ] occurs in words like roar Approximants are often divided up in a different way: liquids are the “r” and “l” sounds; in English [l] and . Glides (also called “semivowels”) are central approximants like [j] and [w] that are closely similar to vowels (see below). (f) In a tap, the tongue tip brushes very briefly against the roof of the mouth—too short a closure to count as a stop. The tap of English is found in words like data (North American dialects only), and is symbolized . The tap is generally voiced. 9.2 Place of Articulation By combining information about place of articulation with information about manner, we can arrive at complete descriptions of English consonants. I will cover the places of articulation going from the front to the back of the mouth. (a) Bilabial sounds are made by touching the upper and lower lips together. English has a voiceless bilabial stop [p], a voiced bilabial stop [b], and a (voiced) bilabial nasal [m]. Note the standard form for describing a consonant: the format is VOICING-PLACE-MANNER. In the case of nasals and approximants, which are almost always voiced, it is permissible to specify only place and manner. (b) Labio-dental sounds are made by touching the lower lip to the upper teeth. English has a voiceless labio-dental fricative, [f], and a voiced one, [v]. Labio-dental stops and nasals are very rare, though English speakers make them if they try to say [p], [b], or [m] while smiling. (c) Dental sounds are made by touching the tongue to the upper teeth. This can be done in a number of ways. If the tongue is stuck out beyond the teeth, the sound is called an interdental, though we will not worry about such fine distinctions. English has a voiceless interdental fricative [θ] (as in thin), and a voiced one [ð] (as in then). (d) Alveolar sounds are made by touching the tip or blade of the tongue to a location just forward of the alveolar ridge. English has several alveolar consonants. There is a voiceless alveolar stop [t], a voiced alveolar stop [d], voiceless and voiced alveolar fricatives [s] and [z], an alveolar nasal [n], and an alveolar lateral liquid [l]. All these phonetic symbols correspond to English spelling. (e) Palato-alveolar sounds are made by touching the blade of the tongue to a location just behind the alveolar ridge. English has a voiceless palato-alveolar fricative  (as in shoe), a voiced palato-alveolar fricative  (as in vision), a voiceless palato-alveolar affricate [t], (as in church), and voiced palato-alveolar affricate [dʒ] (as in judge). (f) Palatal sounds are made by moving the body of the tongue forward toward the hard palate. English has just one palatal sound, the palatal glide [j], as in year. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 306 (f) Velar sounds are made by touching the body of the tongue to the velum. English has three velar sounds: a voiceless velar stop [k] (as in cat or king), a voiced velar stop [g] (as in goat), and a velar nasal [ŋ] (as in sing). Note that in this case English uses a sequence of two letters to spell what is phonetically a single sound. (g) Glottal sounds are made by moving the vocal cords close to one another. English has a voiceless glottal fricative [h]. 9.3 Consonant chart The consonants can be depicted arranged by place, manner, and voicing, as follows:
Bilabial Stops voiceless voiced Affricates voiceless voiced Fricatives voiceless voiced Tap Nasals Approximants lateral central Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palatoalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal /p/
mitt [ɾ] data /n/
ying The arrangement of the chart is traditional: the columns depict place, going from front to back in the vocal tract, and the rows depict manner, going roughly in increasing sonority (loudness). 10. Describing vowels Vowels differ from consonants in that they do not have real “places of articulation”, that is to say, points of severe constriction in the vocal tract. Rather, the vocal tract as a whole acts as a Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 307 resonating chamber. By modifying the shape of this chamber using movements of the tongue, jaw, and lips, one imparts different sound qualities to the basic noise made by the vocal cords. An analogy can be made with brass instruments. The vocal cords by themselves make a rather ugly buzz, just like the mouthpiece of a trumpet does when played by itself. The buzz is given its more pleasant characteristic quality by being passed through a resonating chamber (for example, a trumpet or a vocal tract). The quality of the sound is determined by the shape of the chamber; thus vowels of English are similar to notes played by the same trumpet with different mutes placed inside. There are three basic modifications that one can make to the shape of the vocal tract. Vowels are described by specifying the amount of each modification used. 10.1 Rounding One obvious modification one can make to the shape of the vocal tract is to round the lips, thus narrowing the passage at the exit. This happens, for example, in the vowels of boot [u], book [ʊ], and boat [oʊ]. These are called rounded or simply round vowels. Other vowels, such as the [i] of beet or the  of cot, are called unrounded. (Warning: you may speak a dialect of English that has little lip rounding. The really rounded vowels are found more easily in other languages.) 10.2 Height Another modification one can make to the shape of the vocal tract is to make passage through the mouth wider or narrower. Widening is accomplished by opening the jaw and/or lowering the body of the tongue towards the bottom of the mouth. Narrowing is accomplished by raising the jaw and raising the body of the tongue. The terminology for describing these changes is based on the height of the tongue body (without regard to whether this is due to jaw movement or tongue movement). Vowels are classified as high, mid, or low, depending on tongue body position. In effect, high vowels have a narrow passage for the air to pass through, and low vowels have a wide passage. Examples of high vowels in English are [i], the vowel of beat, and [u], the vowel of boot. Example of low vowels are [ɑ], the vowel of cot, and [æ], the vowel of bat. You can feel the oral passage widening and narrowing if you pronounce a sequence of vowels that alternates between high and low, such as [i æ i æ i æ i æ]. 10.3 Backness The third primary way of changing the vocal tract shape is to place the body of the tongue towards the front part of the mouth or towards the back. Vowels so made are called front and Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 308 back vowels.109 For example, [i] (beat) is a high front vowel, and [u] (boot) is a high back vowel (which is also rounded). You can feel the tongue moving forwards and backwards if you pronounce the sequence [i u i u i u i u]. 10.4 Vowel chart We now have three “dimensions” for classifying vowels, each based on a particular modification of the vocal tract shape: rounding, height, and backness. The three dimensions allow us to describe vowels clearly, and also to organize them in a chart: Note that this chart is an abstraction, since in physical reality the vowels do not line up vertically in tongue body position. In particular, the high front vowels are considerably more forward than the high back vowels, owing to the space available for tongue movement. Because of this, the chart should be interpreted as saying “relatively more front” or “relatively more high” rather than specifying actual physical tongue positions.
Front Unrounded Upper tense Lower nontense Upper tense Lower nontense Low Back Unrounded Rounded Diphthongs /i/
boot /aɪ/, /aʊ/, /ɪ/
bite, bout, Coit /ɪ/
foot / e/
boat Rhotacized upper mid back unrounded: / ɛ/
father Vowels are usually identified with formula HEIGHT-BACKNESS-ROUNDNESS. For example, [u] is an “upper high back rounded vowel.” 10.5 Dialect variation English dialects differ most noticeably in their vowel systems. Here are differences you may find in your speech: (1) I included the lower mid back rounded vowel  on the chart, but probably about half of Americans don’t have this vowel in their speech—there is an ongoing change in American that is wiping out this vowel. Speakers of the newer, -less dialect use  in the words that speakers of the older dialect say with ; thus:
A more refined classification recognizes central vowels; neither front nor back. Here it will suffice to have just two degrees of backness.
109 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 309 Old dialect law [l] caught [kt] Pauley [pli] la cot Polly [l] [kt] [pli] New dialect110 law, la [l] caught, cot [kt] Pauley, Polly [pli] Speakers who don’t have an  as a separate sound do usually have it as part of diphthong, as in  boy; see section 310 below. (2) Many Americans have a high central rounded vowel, IPA [ʉ], instead of [u]. 10.6 Schwa (): a reduced vowel English has a so-called “reduced vowel”, which appears in the underlined position in the following words: tomato America Connecticut [tmeo] [mek] [knkt] This vowel varies in its quality and is quite short, so it is hard to transcribe. We will simplify things by always transcribing the reduced vowel as [ə] (the vowel called “schwa”). In transcribing, if you hear a very short, indistinct “blurry” vowel, transcribe it as schwa. 10.7 The rhotacized vowel [ɚ] [ɚ], the vowel of bird, is rather like the schwa, except that the tongue blade is curved upward in the manner of an  (see images above). This upward curvature is called rhotacization; thus [ɚ] is classified as a rhotacized upper mid central unrounded vowel. 10.8 Glide-Vowel Connections As a “semivowel”, a glide is a consonant that is articulated in the same manner as a vowel. Glides can be described from the viewpoint of vowels as well as consonants. Thus, [j] is considered a central palatal approximant; but from the viewpoint of semivowels it is the partner of [i]since its position is upper high and front. Likewise, [w] is the partner (articulated in the same place as) [u], and the alveolar central approximant  also has the vowel partner [ɚ]. These labels should be interpreted with caution: some speakers of the “old” dialect are three years old, some speakers of the “new” dialect are 100. Language change happens fairly slowly. 110 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 310 10.9 Diphthongs A diphthong (note the spelling) is a sequence of the form vowel+glide that functions as a single sound. English has numerous diphthongs. The three most obvious ones are [aɪ], which appears in ride; [ɪ], which appears in boy; and [aw], which appears in how. The diphthong [aʊ] is pronounced [æʊ] by many speakers. Less obvious diphthongs (because the articulators don’t move as far) are [e], as in bay, and [o], as in so. 10.10 Syllabic consonants English also has what are called “syllabic consonants”. These are sounds that are articulated like consonants, but form the nucleus of a syllable as if they were vowels. Syllabic consonants are transcribed by putting a [ ] underneath the symbol for the appropriate consonant. The following transcriptions illustrate this: tickle button [tkl] ̩ [btn̩] FEATURES 11. Features We will shortly shift from phonetics to phonology. This involves writing rules; and to write rules, it is useful to have a compact and clear formalism. The formalism used to refer to speech sounds in phonology is to use phonetic features. These are rather like the morphosyntactic features we used for inflectional morphology (for example, [Case:Accusative], but they refer here to phonetic rather than grammatical properties. Informally, the features of [d] are that it is a stop, that it is alveolar, that it is voiceless, and further, that it is not round and not nasal. The features jointly define this sound. Phonetic features are generally given a more compact notation than what we used for morphological features: a plus sign, placed before the feature name, means that a segment has the relevant property; minus means that it lacks it. Thus [i] is said to be [+high, +tense, –round, –nasal, –back].111 As with morphological features, brackets are normally placed around the feature names. If we were to be consistent, we would write [High:Plus, Tense:Plus, Round:Minus, Nasal:Minus, Back:Minus], but no linguist ever writes phonological features in this way. 111 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 311 12. A feature set We will use the following features in doing phonology; each should be assumed to take the values plus or minus: [syllabic] [voiced] [nasal] [high] [low] [front] [back] [round] [tense] [stressed] Some comments on these features: [syllabic] distinguishes vowels (and syllabic consonants like [l] and [n]; see above) from consonants; the vowels are [+syllabic], the consonants [–syllabic]. [tense] is a feature of vowels, corresponding to what is sometimes taught in school as “long”. The vowels , , [æ] ,  are [–tense]; the others are [+tense]. The lower high, lower mid, and low vowels are [–tense], the others [+tense]. The distinction may seem arbitrary, but is useful for phonology—consider, for instance, that it is precisely the [–tense] vowels that may not occur before another vowel, or at the end of a word. To distinguish the three basic vowel height categories (high, mid, and low), we only need two features, not three: high vowels are [+high, –low]; low vowels are [–high, +low]; and mid vowels are [–high, –low]. (A vowel that was [+high, +low] would be a logical impossibility.) Other than the above, the features are simply restatements of the traditional phonetic terminology already covered above. For this course I’d like you to understand the meaning of the features but not memorize them; exams will include feature charts where needed. 13. Feature charts Here are the features we’ll be using, with the sounds of English defined according to the features. Notes: [aspirated]: see p. 316 below. [stressed]: This is treated as a feature of vowels; vowels can be either stressed or stressless. The value is not given in the chart, but (for example) when you see stressless [i] (as in [ˈhæpi] happy) you should assume [−stress] and when you see stressed [i] (as in [stop] [affricate] [fricative] [liquid] [glide] [aspirated] [lateral] [bilabial] [labiodental] [dental] [alveolar] [palato-alveolar] [palatal] [velar] [glottal] Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 312 [ˈdivə] diva) you should assume [+stress]. The exceptions are: assume that schwa ([ə]) is always [−stress] and caret ([ʌ]) is always [+stress]. When a blank appears in the chart, it means that the feature is not essential to the production of the sound. For example, there are no values under [p] for [high], [low], [back], [round], or [tense]. The actual position of the tongue and lips for [p] will vary depending on the context. The major diphthongs [a a ] would be treated as two-vowel sequences, so they don’t appear in the chart. [eɪ] and [oʊ] are close enough to [e] and [o] that we can ignore that difference here. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 313 Consonants
Manner of articulation features Features mostly for vowels Place of articulation features Laryngeal [aspirated] features [voiced] [syllabic] [stop] [affricate] [fricative] [liquid] [glide] [nasal] [high] [low] [back] [round] [tense] [stressed] [bilabial] [labiodental] [dental] [alveolar] [palato-alveolar] [palatal] [velar] [glottal] [lateral] p t k b d g tʃ dʒ f θ s ʃ h v ð z ʒ m n
ŋ l ɹ j
w - + + + + + + - + + - + + + + + + + + + - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + - + + - + + - + + + + + + - + + + + + - + - + + + - + - + - Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 314 Vowels
Manner of articulation features Features mostly for vowels Place of articulation features Laryngeal [aspirated] features [voiced] [syllabic] [stop] [affricate] [fricative] [liquid] [glide] [nasal] [high] [low] [back] [round] [tense] [stressed] [bilabial] [labiodental] [dental] [alveolar] [palato-alveolar] [palatal] [velar] [glottal] [lateral] i ɪ eɪ ɛ
æ u ʊ oʊ ɔ
ʌ ə ɚ ɑ + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + - - - - - + - - - - - 13.1 Description of sounds using their features The features allow us to describe a segment phonetically in a compact notation, called a feature matrix. For example, the vowel [i] is expressed in features as follows: –back +high –low +tense –round –nasal +syllabic A less detailed matrix, important later on when we turn to phonology, would specify [i] as a vowel of English, giving only the features necessary to distinguish it from all the other English sounds. In these terms, [i] is Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 315 +syllabic –back +high +tense You can find such reduced feature matrix by examining the full matrix and taking away features one by one where they are not needed to distinguish the sound from any other sound in the same language. In the above example, [–low] is not needed, since no high vowel can be low. [–round] is not needed, since English has no front rounded vowels. [–nasal] is not needed, since English has no nasalized vowels. Study Exercise #36 Using the features above, describe the sounds [t] and [n] in the same way that [i] was described, that is, enough to distinguish them from other sounds of English. Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 316 Answer to Study Exercise #36 [t]: [n]: –voiced +affricate +nasal +alveolar ———————————————————————————————————— Feature notation also allows us to refer to whole classes of segments at a time. This is similar to the use of features in inflectional morphology, where they permit use to refer to classes of inflected forms. For example, the expression [+voiced, +alveolar] would pick out the segments [d,z,n,ɹ,ɾ,l] if we were dealing with English. Similarly, the expression [+syllabic, +high] picks out the vowels [i,,u,] from the set of all English vowels. Why does this matter? It will matter when we move on to phonology—the phonological rules treat whole classes of sound in parallel. To give an example, English aspirates (adds puff of breath) to the sound [p] when it is in word-initial position: pin is [pɪn], whereas spin, with medial [p], has unaspirated [p]: [spɪn].112 This pattern is replicated with the other voiceless stops: till is [tɪl], still is [stɪl]; kin is [kɪn], skin is [skɪn]. Thus, the overall pattern is to aspirate the entire class of voiceless stops, or in features [+stop,−voice]. This use of features will appear repeatedly in the next chapter. Study Exercise #37 If you wanted to characterize the following set of sounds in English: a. [u,i] b. [i,,e,,æ] c. [v, , z, ] d. [w, u, , o, ] e. [m, n, ] f. [l] g. [p, t, k, t, f, , s, , h] h. [, ] what features would you use? Try to use the minimum needed. An easy way to detect this is to pronounce pin and spin with fingertips in front of your lips, thus detecting the aspiration. 112 Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 317 Answer to Study Exercise #37 a. [u,i] b. [i, , e, , æ] c. [v, , z, ] d. [w, u, , o, ] e. [m, n, ] f. [l] g. [p, t, k, t, f, , s, , h] h. [, ] +high +tense +syllabic −back +voiced +fricative [+round] [+nasal] [+lateral] [–voice] [+dental] ——————————————————————————————————— Study Exercise #38 Indicate the minimum number of features needed to single out the following sets of sounds from the other sounds of English. Use the feature charts starting on p. 313 above. a. b. c. d. e. [d, n, z, l] [l] [w] [h] [æ,ɑ] f. [eɪ, ɛ, oʊ, ɔ, ʌ, ɚ] g. [ɛ,ʌ,æ] h. [ɛ,ʌ] i. [æ, ɪ, ʊ, eɪ, oʊ, ɔ, ɚ, ɑ, i, u, b, d, g, dʒ, v, ð, z, ʒ, m, n, ŋ, l, ɹ, j, w] j. [f,θ,s,ʃ,h] Hayes Introductory Linguistics p. 318 Answers to Study Exercise #38 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. [+voice, +alveolar] [+lateral] [−syllabic,+round] [+glottal] [+low] [−high,−low] [−tense,−high] [−tense,−high,−low] [+voice] [−voice,+fricative] ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2011 for the course LING 20 taught by Professor Schutze during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.
- Fall '08