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Psychology 1XX3 Notes

Psychology 1XX3 Notes - Development January-06-09 9:58 PM...

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Definitions The continuities and changes that occur within an individual between conception and death Development The biologically planned unfolding of changes within an individual Maturation The relatively permanent enduring changes to our thoughts, behaviours, and feelings through learning processes Learning Development is the combination/interaction of Maturation and Learning Integrationist Perspective Studying Development We change/develop most as young children Present infant with same stimulus over and over and measure physiological response Continue until physiological response drops back to base-line value Present new stimuli If there is an increase in physiological activity then the infant recognizes the new stimuli as new, if not the infant does cannot tell the difference between both stimuli Habituation Procedure Measure infants brainwaves in different brain areas Same procedure as Habituation Event-Related Potentials Measures baseline sucking Stimulus presented based on increased sucking Sucking behaviour can be used to tell weather or not the infant liked the stimulus High Amplitude Sucking Infant is placed in a looking chamber with two stimuli Researcher measures which stimuli the infant pays more attention to Preference Method 4 Ways to Measure Abilities in Infants An individual may fail a task not because they lack cognitive abilities, but because they were unable to demonstrate them Competence Performance Distinction Developmental Research Design Same individuals are studied repeatedly over a subset of their lifespan Allows assessment of development change Very costly and time consuming Some people quit or become unfit to continue/die creating a different sample at different time points Problems with Selective Attrition Prone to practice effects Longitudinal Design People from different age groups are tested at once Still allows assessment of development change Much less costly and time consuming You cannot be entirely sure if trends are due to developmental changes or generational differences Cannot asses individual changes Cross-Sectional Design Development January-06-09 9:58 PM Psychology 1XX3 Notes Page 1
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The Integrationist Perspective 100% nurture, anyone can become anything based on environment and teaching Behaviourist 100% Nature, everything you can be is based on the genes your parents gave you Genetic Genotype Restricts the phenotypes to a small number of developmental outcomes Infant Babbling is all the same at first, but cultural influences shape the eventual outcome Your potential range for height is based on environment, but it is still fixed between two finite values (Traits) Canalization Principle Genotype establishes a range of possible responses to different kinds of life experiences Your potential range for height is based on environment, but it is still fixed between two
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Psychology 1XX3 Notes - Development January-06-09 9:58 PM...

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