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INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY 1/20/11 Experiments Theory – a testable idea that unites a set of underlying observations under a single explanation Hypothesis – a test of a theory (Hypo-under, thesis – theory) Independent variable – the manipulated thing in the experiment; experimental variable being studied Control group - the comparison group; the group in an experiment that gets no experimental treatment -- The control group provides a comparison for the experimental group Dependent variable – thing you measure to make sure independent variable worked; depends on what happened in the experiment Operationalization – a way of defining an unmeasurable variable by looking at its measureable operationalization - Likert scale – how to measure operationalization; ex: Lima beans - Scale of 1 to 5 how much do you like them? Class average is neutral (3) Experimental problems - Placebo effect : feeling better without science; it’s very strong; like “kiss the boo boo” or taking a pill and feeling better without the effects actually being in your system; a substance or treatment that seems as if it should have an effect on behavior, but does not - Unobtrusive measures : measuring something that the subject doesn’t know is being measured; a measurement whose existence is not apparent to the person being measured o Ex: wanting to see which exhibit is viewed the most? Look at how many scrapes are on the floor - Hawthorne effect : people don’t act the same when watched - Double blind : nobody knows what group they’re in and random assignments to groups; situation in which neither the subjects nor the experimenter know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control 1/24/11 The Brain More liquid – 85% water
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Much like a gelatin Pint of blood/min pumped through Reptilian – like a kit for staying alive, eating, walking o What reptiles have Paleomammalian – early brain, early mammal o Appetite, emotions Neomammalian – new mammalian brain o What makes us human One part of the brain knows the job and one has to do the job o Cortical smile – fake, with the cortex, just doing the job o Ducchenne – real smile, wrinkling of the eyes, knowing the job 4 Parts of the brain – reptilian, paleomammalian, right and left cortex They send signals from one side to the other o If they can’t communicate then there are problems o One side is language, one side is concepts “Being yourself” o When you pretend to be what you’re not, you become that person o The cortex will decide o If you want to become something, pretend to be it, but can also make you miserable 1/27/11 Brain continued Why is the brain in the head? Location maximizes activity
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