Chapter13_AcidsBases_post

Chapter13_AcidsBases_post - CHM 11200 Spring 11 Chapter 13...

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CHM 11200 Spring 11 Chapter 13 Acids and Bases
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What are Acids and Bases? Arrhenius model of acids and bases: acids produce H + ions in solution bases produce OH ions in solution
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Arrhenius Model and Neutralization The Arrhenius model explains how acids and bases neutralize each other: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O ( l ) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) + H 2 O ( l )
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More on Arrhenius Model The Arrhenius model has some drawbacks H + (a bare proton) is very small and a very concentrated positive charge – unlikely to exist on it’s own in solution model assumes that base contains OH – but some do not (NH 3 , for example) We need a broader definition of acids and bases to deal with these problems . . .
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Brønsted-Lowry Theory Brønsted-Lowry theory defines acids and bases differently. acid – any substance that can donate an H + ion to another substance base – any substance that can accept an H + ion from another substance This covers all Arrhenius acids and bases plus others (like bases with no OH and salts which act as acids or bases)
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Brønsted-Lowry theory explains the behavior of acids as follows: HCl (g) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Brønsted-Lowry Acids When HCl gas dissolves in water it donates an H + ion to water to form hydronium ions and chloride ions. In this example water is acting as a base because it is accepting H + ions from HCl.
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H + Ion in Water H + + O H H O H H H +
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Brønsted-Lowry theory explains the behavior of bases as follows: NH 3 (g) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Brønsted-Lowry Bases NaOH (s) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O ( l )
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We have seen that water can either donate or accept hydrogen ions. So it can act as either an acid or a base. Water is Amphoteric A substance that can act as either an acid or a base is said to be amphoteric .
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Brønsted-Lowry theory also explains how some salts can act as bases: Brønsted-Lowry Bases Na + is just a spectator ion in this reaction.
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