Chapter 12_Rates and Equilibrium_post

Chapter 12_Rates and Equilibrium_post - CHM 11200 Spring 10...

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CHM 11200 Spring 10 Chapter 12 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium
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Reaction Rates Some chemical reactions occur very quickly while others may take years. Rate of a reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction occurs. 2
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Reaction Rates 3 Reaction rate depends on the conditions of the reaction: concentrations temperature surface area presence of a catalyst
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Collision Theory 4 Let’s try to explain how reaction rates vary by thinking on a molecular level. Collision theory says that for a reaction to occur, the reactant molecules must collide with sufficient energy and in the proper orientation. Let’s consider the following reaction that occurs in smog: O 3 (g) + NO (g) O 2 (g) + NO 2 (g)
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Orientation of Collisions 5 O 3 (g) + NO (g) O 2 (g) + NO 2 (g) Which collision will result in reaction?
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Energy of Collision 6 If the O 3 and NO molecules have that orientation, will the reaction automatically take place?
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Energy Needed for Reaction 7 Molecules must collide with sufficient energy for a reaction to occur because reactions involve breaking of bonds (which requires energy).
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Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates 8
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Temperature 9 Light sticks will glow brighter (but not as long) as higher temperatures. reduce T – decrease reaction rate increase T – increase reaction rate DEMO
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Temperature 10 increasing temperature gives molecules more energy more likely that molecules will have sufficient energy (E a ) for the reaction to occur
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1 M and 3 M acetic acid solutions 11 NaHCO 3 (aq) + CH 3 COOH (aq) NaCH 3 COO (aq) + H 2 O ( l ) + CO 2 (g) DEMO
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hot iron nail in O 2 reacts slowly (low surface area) 12
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hydrogen peroxide decomposes slowly on its own 13 in presence of a catalyst – such as the catalase enzyme in liver, hydrogen peroxide decomposes rapidly 2 H 2 O 2 (aq) 2 H 2 O ( l ) + O 2 (g)
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Catalysts alter the pathway by which the reaction occurs without being used up in the reaction. 14
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Chapter 12_Rates and Equilibrium_post - CHM 11200 Spring 10...

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