lecture 1

lecture 1 - Introductory Plant Pathology BTNY 301 R....

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Unformatted text preview: 8/17/10 Introductory Plant Pathology BTNY 301 R. D. Martyn Fall, 2010 Lecture #1 What are diseases and why are they important? RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 1 Introductory Plant Pathology (BTNY 301) Fall Semester 2010 Lec: T / Th (9:30 am – 10:20 am) Lab: Th (1:30 pm ­3:30 pm / 3:30 PM ­5:30 pm) Dr. R. D. Martyn, Professor Ms. Jessica, Graduate TA RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 2 1 8/17/10 Introductory Plant Pathology BTNY 30100 •  Textbook “Essen\al Plant Pathology” ­ 2006 Gail Schumann & Cleora D’Arcy APS Press, St. Paul, MN •  Assigned outside readings (website ar\cles) •  Lecture RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 3 Introductory Plant Pathology ­ BTNY 301 •  Lecture –  4 exams (Textbook, lectures, assigned readings) –  75% of course grade –  Makeup exams only with approved university absence. Makeup within 1 week. –  BTNY 301 is a science course! It will require work. (New technical vocabulary, scien\fic names, biological cycles, etc.) RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 4 2 8/17/10 hhp://www.APSnet.org RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 5 hhp://www.APSnet.org RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 6 3 8/17/10 hhp://www.APSnet.org RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 7 hhp://www.APSnet.org RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 8 4 8/17/10 hhp//www.APSnet.org RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 9 Introductory Plant Pathology – BTNY 301 •  Laboratory –  Weekly lab assignments –  3 lab quizzes –  25% of course grade –  No make ­up for missed labs or quizzes. Missed assignments graded as zero RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 10 5 8/17/10 BTNY 301 RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 11 Contact Informa\on •  Dr. R.D. Martyn, Professor –  [email protected] –  494 ­4645 –  Office: Rm 1 ­238 Lilly Hall •  Ms. Jessica Schafer, Graduate TA –  [email protected] –  496 ­6690 –  Office: Rm 1 ­367 Lilly Hall RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 12 6 8/17/10 What is plant pathology? •  Plant pathology is the science of plant diseases; the organisms that cause them, the biology and physiological interac\ons between host and pathogen, the epidemiology of their spread and efforts to manage and minimize losses. •  Plant pathology is a interdisciplinary science and specializa\on involving microbiology, botany, physiology, epidemiology, molecular biology, ecology, taxonomy and much more! RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 13 Why study plant pathology? Why is plant pathology important? •  Plant diseases can kill plants! People and animals can’t live without plants. •  Plant diseases cause major losses in plant produc\vity (food, feed and fiber) – 15 to 20% worldwide / $222,000,000,000. •  Plant disease epidemics can result in untold human suffering, death and world ­changing societal events. •  Plant diseases destroy the beauty, aesthe\cs and recrea\onal value of plants, the landscape, and the environment. •  Plant diseases are a poten\al threat to our na\onal security and well ­being. •  And much more… RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 14 7 8/17/10 Impact of Plant Diseases •  _________________________ (Puccinia graminis tri-ci) •  Oldest recorded plant disease  ­ Spores found in excava\ons in Israel dated to about 1300 B.C.  ­ Theophrastus (370 ­286 B.C.)  ­ Robigo – Special Roman god of rust (43 B.C. – 17 A.D.)  ­ Norman Borlaug – The Green Revolu\on (1950s / 60s)  ­ New strain – Ug99 (1999 ­present) RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 15 Impact of Plant Diseases •  ____________ (Claviceps purpurea) – Ergo\sm / St. Anthony’s Fire.  ­ 857 A.D. “a Great plague of swollen blisters consumed the people by a loathsome rot, so that their limbs were loosened and fell off before death.”  ­Cause of ‘bewitchment’ / Salem witch trials  ­  Fungus produces hallucinogenic and Toxic alkaloid in the rye kernels RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 16 8 8/17/10 Impact of Plant Diseases •  ____________________ (Bipolaris oryzae) –  The Great Bengal Famine – 1943 –  Unusually long monsoon season –  Destroyed the rice crop –  2 million people starved to death RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 17 Impact of Plant Diseases •  ________________ (Phytophthora infestans) –  The Irish potato famine (1845 ­48) –  1 million people starved to death –  1.5 million Irish immigrated to the U.S. RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 18 9 8/17/10 Impact of Plant Diseases •  ___________________ (Hemileia vastatrix) –  Destroyed coffee planta\ons in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) – 1880s –  Spread to all of SE Asia and Africa –  Caused the Europeans to switch from coffee to tea –  1970s – South America –  1980s – Central America –  Biggest factor in the cost of coffee G. Schumann. ‘Why Europeans drink tea’ hhp://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/biodiver/ coferust.html RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 19 Impact of Plant Diseases •  __________________ (Cryphonectria parasi-ca) –  First discovered in New York – 1904 –  By 1926 throughout the na\ve range of Chestnuts  ­  Destroyed virtually all of the American chestnuts  ­  Resulted in the Plant Quaran\ne Act of 1912 S. Anagnostakis. Revitaliza\on of the majes\c chestnut. hhp://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/ chestnut/ RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 20 10 8/17/10 Impact of Plant Diseases •  ______________________ (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) –  First reported in U.S. in 1915. Introduced on rootstock from Japan. –  Eradicated from U.S. by 1930s. Only known case of a plant disease eradicated. –  Reintroduced into Florida in 1995 –  Hurricane spread  ­ USDA abandoned eradica\on programs. –  EsAmated cost  ­ $1 billion T. Gotwald & J. Graham. Plant Disease Lesson: Citrus canker. hhp://www.apsnet.org/educa\on/LessonsPlantPath/CitrusCanker/ hhp://www.apsnet.org/educa\on/LessonsPlantPath/CitrusCanker/ RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 21 What are plant diseases? •  Plant diseases are similar to diseases of __________ and ___________, i.e., caused by the same general types of organisms (_______________________________________). •  Plant diseases are the interac\on between plants and pathogens and are greatly influenced by the ____________, _____________, and _______________environment. •  Pathogens cause disease in a variety of ways (toxins, cellular degrading enzymes, destruc\on of chlorophyll and photosynthesis, growth regulators, polysaccharides, etc.) RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 22 11 8/17/10 What is disease? •  Caused by a pathogen: ______________________ •  __________________________________________ •  ___________________  ­ All pathogens are parasites but not all parasites are pathogens. •  _________________________________ in the plant causing harm or death. •  Disease is ___________ and __________________ •  Plants respond to disease by the onset of ______________ or _______________ __________ RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 23 What types of organisms cause plant diseases? •  The same types of organisms that cause human and animal diseases also cause plant diseases. –  ________  ­ ________  ­ _______  ­ __________ –  ___________ _____________ RD Martyn, Purdue Univ  ­__________ ____________ 24 12 8/17/10 What’s the difference between disease and others things that cause plants to die? •  BioAc (Diseases) –  ________________________________________ ________________________________________ •  AbioAc (CondiAons) – _____________________ __________________________________________  ­ Nutrient deficiencies / toxici\es  ­ Injury, physical damage, insect feeding  ­ Edaphic (soil, water, light, temperature, etc.) RD Martyn, Purdue Univ 25 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2011 for the course BTNY 301 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.

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