13 - 7.3 The Modern Model of the Atom The modern model of...

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7.3 The Modern Model of the Atom ! The modern model of the atom is based on Schrodinger’s mathematical model of waves ! The energies of electrons are still quantized, but this model describes electrons as occupying orbitals, not orbits, ! Orbitals : three dimensional regions in space where electrons are likely to be found; not a circular pathway Figure 7.11 Probability map: The electron is more likely found in the darker region. Orbital representation: Show an enclosed region in space where the electron is likely to be found 95% of the time. " Principal Energy Levels: Orbitals of similar size exist in the same principal energy level (n=1, 2, 3 …). As the principal energy level increases, the orbital extends further from the nucleus " There are four general types of orbitals: s , p , d , and f s orbitals : Spherical shape. p orbitals : Dumbbell shape. Three p orbitals in a sublevel (P x ,P y ,P z ). They lie perpendicular to one another. These orbitals overlap with their centers at the nucleus. d orbitals : Five d orbitals in a sublevel.
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