16 - Exceptions to the Octet Rule ! Molecules with an odd...

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Exceptions to the Octet Rule ! Molecules with an odd number of electrons e.g. NO ! Incomplete octets e.g. BH 3 or BF 3 Carbon Compounds ! Carbon has: Four valence electrons The ability to form four bonds The ability to bond to itself Very strong bonds when bonded to itself ! Carbon molecules are ubiquitous in nature. Hydrocarbons Figure 8.20 Figure 8.20
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Hydrocarbons ! Compounds containing hydrogen and carbon ! Aliphatic hydrocarbons: Linear molecul`es with single, double, and triple bonds Alkanes: contain only carbon-carbon single bonds Alkenes: contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond Alkynes: contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond ! Aromatic hydrocarbons: Molecules containing carbon atoms arranged in a six-atom ring with alternating single and double bonds (resonance or delocalized structures) 8.4 Shapes of Molecules Predicting Shapes of Molecules ! A simple model used with Lewis structures allows us to predict shapes of molecules. Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory
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16 - Exceptions to the Octet Rule ! Molecules with an odd...

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