Rock_Identification_7

Rock_Identification_7 - slower the cooling rate, the larger...

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Deformed and folded gneiss. (Photo by E. J. Figure 2.23 Anthracite coal, often called hard coal, forms from the metamorphism of bituminous coal. (Photo by E. J. Tarbuck) Figure 2.21 Pink marble, a nonfoliated metamorphic rock that forms from the metamorphism of the sedimentary rock limestone and is composed of the mineral calcite. (Photo by E. J. Tarbuck) Figure 2.22 Quartzite, a nonfoliated metamorphic rock composed of fused quartz grains. (Photo by E. J. Tarbuck) 4. Of the three rock types, (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) rocks often contain haphazardly arranged pieces or fragments, rather than crystals. Circle your answer. Identification Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystalliza- tion of magma. The interlocking network of mineral crystals that develop as the molten material cools gives most igneous rocks their distinctive crystalline appearance. Textures of Igneous Rocks The rate of cooling of the magma determines the size of the interlocking crystals found in igneous rocks. The
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Unformatted text preview: slower the cooling rate, the larger the mineral crystals. The five principal textures of igneous rocks are Coarse Grained (or phaneritic) The majority of mineral crystals are of a uniform size and large enough to be identifiable without a microscope. This texture occurs when magma cools slowly inside Earth. Fine Grained (or aphanitic) Very small crystals, which are generally not identifiable without strong magnification, develop when molten material cools quickly on, or very near, the surface of Earth. Porphyritic Two very contrasting sizes of crystals are caused by magma having two different rates of cooling. The larger crystals are termed phenocrysts; and the smaller, surrounding crystals are termed ground-mass (or matrix). Glassy No mineral crystals develop because of very rapid cooling. This lack of crystals causes the rock to have a glassy appearance. In some cases, rapidly es-caping gases may produce a frothy appearance similar to spun glass. Figure 2,20 Tarbuck)...
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