Lecture 4 reading 4_3

Lecture 4 reading 4_3 - Janick, J. 2005. The origin of...

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The Origins of Fruits, Fruit Growing, and Fruit Breeding Jules Janick Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Purdue University 625 Agriculture Mall Drive West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2010 I. INTRODUCTION A. The Origins of Agriculture B. Origins of Fruit Culture in the Fertile Crescent II. THE HORTICULTURAL ARTS A. Species Selection B. Vegetative Propagation C. Pollination and Fruit Set D. Irrigation E. Pruning and Training F. Processing and Storage III. ORIGIN, DOMESTICATION, AND EARLY CULTURE OF FRUIT CROPS A. Mediterranean Fruits 1. Date Palm 2. Olive 3. Grape 4. Fig 5. Sycomore Fig 6. Pomegranate B. Central Asian Fruits 1. Pome Fruits 2. Stone fruits C. Chinese and Southeastern Asian Fruits 1. Peach 1
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2. Citrus 3. Banana and Plantain 4. Mango 5. Persimmon 6. Kiwifruit D. American Fruits 1. Strawberry 2. Brambles 3. Vacciniums 4. Pineapple 5. Avocado 6. Papaya IV. GENETIC CHANGES AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN DOMESTICATION A. Mutations as an Agent of Domestication B. Interspecific Hybridization and Polyploidization C. Hybridization and Selection D. Champions E. Lost Fruits F. Fruit Breeding G. Predicting Future Changes I. INTRODUCTION Crop plants are our greatest heritage from prehistory (Harlan 1992; Diamond 2002). How, where, and when the domestication of crops plants occurred is slowly becoming revealed although not completely understood (Camp et al. 1957; Smartt and Simmonds 1995; Gepts 2003). In some cases, the genetic distance between wild and domestic plants is so great, maize and crucifers, for example, that their origins are obscure. The origins of the ancient grains (wheat, maize, rice, and sorghum) and pulses (sesame and lentil) domesticated in Neolithic times have been the subject of intense interest and the puzzle is being solved with the new evidence based on molecular biology (Gepts 2003). 2
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In the late Neolithic and Bronze Ages between 6000 and 3000 BCE, the ancient Mediterranean fruits (date, olive, grape, fig, sycomore fig, and pomegranate) were domesticated (Zohary and Spiegel-Roy 1975). Fruits such as citrus, banana, various pome fruits (apple, pear, quince, medlar) and stone fruits (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum) were domesticated in Central and East Asia and reached the West in antiquity. A number of fruits and nuts were domesticated only in the 19 th and 20 th centuries (blueberry, blackberry, pecan, and kiwifruit). Some well-known fruits, although extensively collected, remain to be domesticated such as lingonberry, various cacti such as pitaya, Brazilnut, and durian. This review will consider the various technologies inherent in the origins of some well known fruits emphasizing factors that led to domestication and the genetic changes that ensued. A. The Origins of Agriculture
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Lecture 4 reading 4_3 - Janick, J. 2005. The origin of...

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