was an early member of Dominican order who was influential in translating Aristotle and other ancient works into latin, including
(1. Scholastic philosopher (2. St. Thomas Aquinas one of his pupils (3. Worked on morphology, distinguishes between thorns (stem
structures) and prickles (surface organs) (4. “The plant is a living being, and its life principle is the vegetable soul, whose function is limited to
nourishment, growth and reproduction–feeling, desire, sleep, and sexuality, properly so called, being unknown in the plant world.” (5. Felt that
species were mutable, pointed out that cultivated plants might run wild and become degenerate while wild plants might be domesticated. (6.
Temperate tone on medical virtues
Alexander the Great-
Macedonian conqueror who spread Greek culture from Egypt to India.
Alphonse de Candolle (1806-1893)
Origin of Cultivated Plants (1882) 1. Presence of wild relatives; 2. Historical; 3. Names (linguistics); 4.
Archeology (limited in De Candolle’s time -now a major source of evidence due to carbon dating techniques;
Greek philosopher, wrote on biology, developed the concept of vitalism.
Swedish botanist and taxonomist considered father of taxonomy, he also identifies binomial system of nomenclature.
Author of De Agri Culture, earliest writer of Latin Prose.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Darwin’s Famous Work “On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored
Races in the Struggle for Life” (1859) “The Origin of the Species” for short. The most influential book in all biology. Concepts of Darwinism
Evolution occurs; species not fixed at “creation” Evolutionary change gradual Primary mechanism is struggle for existence and survival of the fittest
All species arose from a single original life form.
Plants evolve as time progresses.
Italian explorer who set out westward in hopes of finding a route to Asia, and accidentally discovered the New World.
roman physician, focused on the medicinal uses of plants, which proved to be more useful to the people in these medieval times than
throphrastes works were.
(1. Continued traditions established by Bock of investigation local flora and realized that plants of
Europe were not all described by the ancients.(2. Books of Dodoens Clusius, and Obel are interrelated (3. Studies plants of the Netherlands(4.
, 1554, basis for other works.
Stirpium historiae en pemptades sex
. Folio volume of 900 pages, 1309 woodcuts, six copies
codex. Borrowed from woodcuts used for Fuchs. (5. Condemmed Doctrine of Signatures (6. Basis of
Lyte in 1578.