lecture 11

lecture 11 - 3/1/11 Herbicide Applica0on Equipment...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 3/1/11 Herbicide Applica0on Equipment Herbicide Applica0on Equipment Botany 304 •  The most common herbicides applicators apply liquid solu0ons, but granular applicators are used on a smaller scale for soil applied herbicide applica0ons. Some photographs were taken off various websites and are intended for instruc0onal purposes only * Variable Rate Computers in Spray Equipment 1 3/1/11 Application Equipment Sprayer Components The basic components of a liquid herbicide sprayer are: •  spray tank •  pump •  pressure regulator •  spray boom •  spray nozzle These parts are common on all liquid spray equipment, a small plas6c pump ­up home sprayer or a sophis6cated commercial self ­propelled sprayer. Sprayer Components In addi0on to the five basic components, most sprayers also have as a minimum: •  a suc0on line strainer •  an agita0on line that returns excess pressure and solu0on to the tank to assist with tank agita0on •  an in ­line pressure gauge •  a boom on ­off valve •  nozzle components consis0ng of a nozzle 0p, strainer, nozzle body and nozzle cap. * * Application Equipment 2 3/1/11 Sprayer Components •  A properly constructed hydraulic herbicide sprayer should be mounted on a vehicle that provides uniform speed, since rate/unit area is comprised of volume and speed (unit area over 0me). •  A typical hydraulic sprayer normally operates at a volume of 5 to 50 gal/A (GPA) with an average of 10 to 20 GPA. This is normally accomplished at spray pressures of 5 to 50 PSI with a normal range of 20 to 40 PSI. Vehicular speed will depend of the vehicle. * Sprayer Nozzles •  The most common spray nozzle for applying herbicides is the regular flat ­fan nozzle, but other nozzle types such as the flood nozzle or whirl chamber nozzle are also used in certain condi0ons. Specialized nozzles such as even flat ­ fan nozzles of hollow cone nozzles are some0mes used for specialized applica0ons. * Nozzle Technology •  Nozzles designed to reduce drift •  Improved drop size control •  Emphasis on ‘Spray Quality’ Sprayer Tips •  In general, flat fan or extended range flat fan nozzles give the most sa0sfactory herbicide performance over a wide variety of condi0ons •  Do not angle 0ps more than 30 degrees from ver0cal as the driY poten0al greatly increases. •  For floaters and sprayers with boom heights greater than 3 feet, 80 degree flat fan 0ps are recommended. * Sprayer Tips •  For lower boom heights, 110 degree 0ps are recommended. •  For farmer applica0on with lower boom heights and 110 degree 0ps, recommended nozzles types include extended range flat fan, Turbo TeeJet, air induc0on (AI), and Turbo Floodjet. * 3 3/1/11 Applica0on and Mixing Procedures Ground Applica6on, Ignite 280 SL Herbicide •  Ignite 280 SL Herbicide should be applied broadcast in a minimum of 15 gallons of water per acre. Under dense weed/crop canopies, 20 to 40 gallons of water per acre should be used so that thorough spray coverage will be obtained. Apply Ignite 280 SL Herbicide using nozzles and pressures that generate MEDIUM (about 250 to 350 microns) spray droplets category as reported by the nozzle manufacturer and in accordance to ASABE S 572. Do not use nozzles and pressures that result in COARSE sprays. FINE sprays should also be avoided to minimize spray driY risk. Boom height should be based on nozzle manufacturer recommenda0ons. See the Spray Dri) Management sec0on of this label for addi0onal informa0on on proper applica0on of Ignite 280 SL Herbicide. •  All these components of a sprayer are designed to allow the sprayer to be calibrated so as to apply a uniform spray padern and make an applica0on of a herbicide in accordance with a product label. hdp://www.teejet.com/english/home/literature/catalogs/catalog ­50a.aspx hdp://www.teejet.com/english/home/products/spray ­products/broadcast ­spray ­nozzles.aspx hdp://www.teejet.com/english/home.aspx * 4 3/1/11 Herbicide Spray Droplet Intercep0on Spray droplet intercep6on is a func6on of the: 1.  Applica0on method 2.  Distance between the sprayer and the target plant 3.  Environmental condi0ons before, during and aYer applica0on 4.  Nature of the target plant leaf surface. * Herbicide Spray Droplet Intercep0on •  Reducing the droplet size by ½ creates 8 ­0mes the number of droplets: example, one 500mu droplet has the volume of eight 250mu droplets. This will likewise, increase the foliage coverage (contact) by a factor of two. •  When doubling the speed, you must increase the pressure 4X to maintain the same volume/acre.   Low pressure creates larger droplets, while high pressure creates smaller droplets when using the same nozzle. Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Incorpora6on Equipment •  The depth and thoroughness of incorpora0on depend upon the type of equipment used, the depth and speed of opera0on, soil texture, and the amount of soil moisture. •  Incorpora0on should place the herbicide uniformly throughout the upper 1 to 2 inches of soil for best control of small ­seeded annual weeds. * * Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Incorpora6on Equipment •  The field cul0vator and tandem disk place most of the herbicide at about one ­half the depth of opera0on, thus the suggested depth of opera0on for these implements is 3 to 4 inches. •  Thorough and uniform incorpora0on, especially with a tandem disk or field cul0vator, requires two passes at an angle to each other. * Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Incorpora6on Equipment •  The effec0veness of single ­pass incorpora0on depends upon soil condi0on as much as the incorpora0on implement. •  Incorpora0on into wet soils or soils with high crop residue levels makes one ­pass incorpora0on difficult to achieve. * 5 3/1/11 Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Field cul6vators •  Two passes are recommended for uniform weed control, but field cul0vators can give acceptable one ­ pass incorpora0on with proper set ­up and opera0on. •  They should have 3 or more rows of shanks with an effec0ve shank spacing of no more than 8 to 9 inches. Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Field cul6vators •  Shanks can be equipped with points or sweeps. Sweeps usually provide beder incorpora0on, especially when soil condi0ons are too wet or too dry for op0mum soil flow and mixing. •  Sweeps for “C” shank cul0vators should be at least as wide as the effec0ve shank spacing. * * Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Field cul6vators •  For one ­pass incorpora0on, wider sweeps or narrower shank spacing with a 3 ­ to 5 ­ bar harrow or rolling basket adachment will improve uniform incorpora0on and weed control. •  The recommended opera0ng depth for the field cul0vator is 3 to 4 inches with a ground speed of at least 6 miles per hour. The field cul0vator must be operated in a level posi0on. * Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Field cul6vators •  If the back shanks are lower than the front, untreated soil will be brought to the surface resul0ng in streaked weed control. * 6 3/1/11 Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Tandem disk harrows •  invert the soil and usually place the herbicide deeper in the soil than most other incorpora0on tools. •  Tandem disks used for herbicide incorpora0on should have disk blade diameters of 20 inches or less and a blade spacing of 7 to 9 inches. •  Spherical disk blades provide beder herbicide mixing than conical disk blades. * Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Tandem disk harrows •  The tandem disk should be operated at a depth of 3 to 4 inches with a ground speed between 4 and 6 miles per hour to move the soil the full width of the blade spacing. •  Two passes are recommended to obtain uniform incorpora0on with a tandem disk. •  A leveling device (harrow or rolling baskets) should be used behind the disk to obtain proper mixing. * 7 3/1/11 Herbicide Incorpora0on Equipment Combina6on tools •  0llage and incorpora0on tools that combine disk gangs, field cul0vator shanks, and leveling devices. •  These tools can handle large amounts of surface residue without clogging while s0ll leave considerable residue on the surface for erosion control. One ­pass incorpora0on with these tools is generally no beder than two passes with a disk or field cul0vator. •  Combina0on tools may provide more uniform one ­pass incorpora0on than a disk or field cul0vator. * 8 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/03/2011 for the course BTNY 304 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online