Lectures 12 & 13 amended -Tissue culture and plant propagation

Lectures 12 & 13 amended -Tissue culture and plant propagation

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Tissue Culture and Plant Propagation Hartmann et al. – Chapters 17 and 18 Mike Hasegawa (HORT 318) – paul.m.hasegawa.1@purdue.edu . Plant tissue culture - plant, organs, tissues or cells grown in vitro Nutrient medium – essential mineral nutrients, carbon source and plant growth regulators Controlled environmental conditions - light, temperature, humidity Why is tissue culture relevant to plant propagation? Disease eradication, rapid clonal multiplication of plants, plants from immature embryos, biotechnology 1
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1. Plantlet formation- Roots and shoots arise from explant 1. Callus and cells- Callus and cells 1. Seedling culture- Seedlings develop from embryos in vitro 1. Embryo culture- Embryos made from vegetative tissues Types of structures formed: 2
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1. Plantlet production: Direct- Axillary shoot formation shoot meristem culture shoot tip culture node culture Indirect - Adventitious shoot formation leaf, root, flower, petiole, callus 2. Seedling culture 3. Callus and cells 4. Embryo culture 3
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                    Node Culture  4
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1. Plantlet Formation - Axillary shoots develop from meristem or shoot tips Leaf Primordia 5
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1. Plantlet production: Axillary shoot formation = “micropropagation” meristem culture – disease free shoot tip culture node culture Adventitious shoot formation   leaf, root, flower, petiole, callus 2. Seedling culture 3. Callus culture 4. Embryo culture 6
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Meristem culture to obtain disease-free stock plants 7
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Heat therapy to eradicate virus 1. Shoots  in vitro   2. growth chamber 3. 3-6 weeks 4. 100 o F 5. meristems harvested Plantlet formation  – tissue culture for disease-free stock 8
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1. Plantlet production: Axillary shoot formation = “micropropagation” shoot meristem culture shoot tip culture node culture Adventitious shoot formation   leaf, root, flower, petiole, callus 2. Seedling culture 3. Callus culture 4. Embryo culture 9
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Shoot propagation of asparagus by enhanced axillary shoot development Six (6) shoots each passage Six (6) passages/year = 46656 plants/yr 10 Cytokinin promotes axillary shoot development
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Shoot apical dominance – auxin induced and cytokinin antagonized Cytokinin promotes lateral bud development 11
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Asparagus shoot multiplication after one passage 12
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Shoot multiplication and root formation of asparagus 13
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Node culture 14 Cytokinin stimulates lateral bud development and multiplication
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Lectures 12 & 13 amended -Tissue culture and plant propagation

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