OSTMG.pdf - Oracle\u00ae Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide 12c Release 2(12.2 E49628-07 July 2017 Oracle Automatic Storage Management

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Unformatted text preview: Oracle® Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide 12c Release 2 (12.2) E49628-07 July 2017 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 2 (12.2) E49628-07 Copyright © 2007, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Eric Belden Contributing Authors: Jerry Abraham, Prasad Bagal, Mark Bauer, Don Bolinger, Bill Bridge, Chan Chan, Xiaobin Chen, Hanlin Chien, Jonathan Creighton, Steve Fogel, Dave Friedman, Barb Glover, Fred Glover, Allan Graves, Cesar Gray, Shie-rei Huang, Rekha Iyer, Sameer Joshi, Ankur Kemar, Diane Lebel, Rich Long, Colin McGregor, Gregory Mengel, Harendra Mishra, Valarie Moore, Nitin Munjal, Darshan Nagarajappa, Harish Nandyala, Bob Nelson, Balaji Pagadala, Satish Panchumarthy, Hemanth Pikkili, Soma Prasad, Mounica Reddy, Kathy Rich, Charles Rusman, Harshavardhan Sabbineni, Francisco Sanchez, Santhosh Selvaraj, Ara Shakian, Duane Smith, Joshua Smith, Laura Solis, Malai Stalin, Amar Subba, Yaser Suleiman, Elisabeth Thibault, Michael Timpanaro-Perrotta, Samarjeet Tomar, Brian Tsao, Nitin Vengurlekar, P Venkatraman, Anton Verhulst, Radek Vingralek, Ron Weiss, Ric Werme, Rajiv Wickremesinghe, Jim A. Williams, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Song Ye, Krishnan Yegnashankaran, Jon Zolla This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing. If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, then the following notice is applicable: U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, delivered to U.S. Government end users are "commercial computer software" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agencyspecific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation of the programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, shall be subject to license terms and license restrictions applicable to the programs. No other rights are granted to the U.S. Government. This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group. This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services unless otherwise set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Contents Preface .......................................................................................................................................................... xxxiii Audience ................................................................................................................................................. xxxiii Documentation Accessibility ............................................................................................................... xxxiii Related Documents................................................................................................................................ xxxiv Conventions............................................................................................................................................ xxxiv Changes in This Release for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide ........................................................................................................................ xxxv Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1)................................ xxxv Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) .............. xxxvii Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)..................................... xl Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2) .................... xli Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)................................... xlii Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1) .................. xlvi Part I Introduction 1 Introducing Oracle Automatic Storage Management 1.1 Overview of Oracle Automatic Storage Management ................................................................ 1-1 1.2 About Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System ........................................ 1-2 1.3 Understanding Oracle ASM Concepts .......................................................................................... 1-3 1.3.1 About Oracle ASM Instances............................................................................................... 1-3 1.3.2 About Oracle ASM Disk Groups......................................................................................... 1-6 1.3.3 About Mirroring and Failure Groups................................................................................. 1-6 1.3.4 About Oracle ASM Disks ..................................................................................................... 1-7 1.3.5 About Oracle ASM Allocation Units ................................................................................. 1-7 1.3.6 About Oracle ASM Files ....................................................................................................... 1-8 1.4 Understanding Oracle ASM Disk Group Administration........................................................ 1-11 1.4.1 About Discovering Disks ................................................................................................... 1-11 1.4.2 About Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups .......................................................... 1-12 1.4.3 About Adding and Dropping Disks ................................................................................. 1-12 iii 1.4.4 About Online Storage Reconfigurations and Dynamic Rebalancing .......................... 1-13 2 Exploring Considerations for Oracle ASM Storage 2.1 Storage Resources for Disk Groups................................................................................................ 2-1 2.2 Oracle ASM and Multipathing ....................................................................................................... 2-3 2.3 Recommendations for Storage Preparation .................................................................................. 2-4 2.4 Storage Device Path and Permission Persistence......................................................................... 2-6 Part II Oracle ASM Instances and Disk Groups 3 Administering Oracle ASM Instances 3.1 Operating with Different Releases of Oracle ASM and Database Instances Simultaneously ................................................................................................................................................................ 3-1 3.2 Initialization Parameters for Oracle ASM Instances.................................................................... 3-2 3.2.1 About Initialization Parameter Files for an Oracle ASM Instance ................................. 3-3 3.2.2 About Backing Up, Copying, and Moving an Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter File................................................................................................................................................. 3-4 3.2.3 About Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter Settings ...................................................... 3-7 3.2.4 About Automatic Memory Management for Oracle ASM.............................................. 3-7 3.2.5 Recommended Settings for Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters ............................... 3-8 3.2.6 About Setting Database Initialization Parameters for Use with Oracle ASM ............ 3-16 3.3 Administration of Oracle ASM Instances.................................................................................... 3-17 3.3.1 Using Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server............................................ 3-17 3.3.2 About Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance.................................................................... 3-18 3.3.3 About Shutting Down an Oracle ASM Instance ............................................................. 3-22 3.3.4 About Administering Oracle ASM Instances with Server Control Utility ................. 3-23 3.3.5 About Out of Place Upgrades............................................................................................ 3-23 3.3.6 About Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure with the Configuration Wizard....... 3-24 3.3.7 About Active Session History Sampling for Oracle ASM ............................................. 3-24 3.3.8 About Oracle Home User on Windows ........................................................................... 3-24 3.4 Upgrading and Patching Oracle ASM ......................................................................................... 3-25 3.4.1 About Oracle ASM Rolling Upgrade................................................................................ 3-25 3.4.2 About Oracle ASM Rolling Patches.................................................................................. 3-26 3.5 Authentication for Accessing Oracle ASM Instances ................................................................ 3-27 3.5.1 About Privileges for Oracle ASM...................................................................................... 3-28 3.5.2 Creating Users with the SYSASM Privilege .................................................................... 3-31 3.5.3 Operating System Authentication for Oracle ASM........................................................ 3-32 3.5.4 Password File Authentication for Oracle ASM............................................................... 3-32 3.5.5 Managing a Shared Password File in a Disk Group ...................................................... 3-33 3.6 Administering the Oracle ASM Audit Trail ............................................................................... 3-36 3.7 Migration of a Database to Use Oracle ASM .............................................................................. 3-37 3.7.1 About Using Oracle Recovery Manager to Migrate Databases to Oracle ASM......... 3-37 3.7.2 Best Practices White Papers on Migrating to Oracle ASM............................................ 3-37 iv 4 Administering Oracle ASM Disk Groups 4.1 Managing Disk Group Attributes .................................................................................................. 4-2 4.1.1 About Viewing and Setting Disk Group Attributes......................................................... 4-2 4.1.2 Summary of Disk Group Attributes ................................................................................... 4-3 4.2 Creating Disk Groups ...................................................................................................................... 4-9 4.2.1 Using the CREATE DISKGROUP SQL Statement.......................................................... 4-10 4.2.2 Creating Disk Groups for Data and Fast Recovery Area .............................................. 4-12 4.2.3 Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation..................................................... 4-14 4.2.4 Specifying the Logical and Physical Sector Size ............................................................. 4-15 4.2.5 Storing Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Files in Oracle ASM Disk Groups ........ 4-18 4.3 Altering Disk Groups ..................................................................................................................... 4-19 4.3.1 Managing Oracle ADVM Volumes in a Disk Group ..................................................... 4-21 4.3.2 Adding Disks to a Disk Group .......................................................................................... 4-22 4.3.3 Using the ALTER DISKGROUP SQL Statement to Add Disks to a Disk Group ...... 4-22 4.3.4 Replacing Disks in Disk Groups ....................................................................................... 4-24 4.3.5 Renaming Disks in Disk Groups....................................................................................... 4-24 4.3.6 Dropping Disks from Disk Groups................................................................................... 4-25 4.3.7 Intelligent Data Placement ................................................................................................. 4-26 4.3.8 Resizing Disks in Disk Groups.......................................................................................... 4-27 4.3.9 Undropping Disks in Disk Groups................................................................................... 4-28 4.3.10 Manually Rebalancing Disk Groups............................................................................... 4-28 4.3.11 Tuning Rebalance Operations ......................................................................................... 4-31 4.3.12 Scrubbing Disk Groups .................................................................................................... 4-32 4.4 Oracle ASM Disk Discovery.......................................................................................................... 4-33 4.4.1 How A Disk is Discovered................................................................................................. 4-33 4.4.2 Disk Discovery Rules .......................................................................................................... 4-34 4.4.3 Improving Disk Discovery Time....................................................................................... 4-35 4.5 Managing Capacity in Disk Groups............................................................................................. 4-35 4.5.1 Negative Values of USABLE_FILE_MB........................................................................... 4-38 4.6 Oracle ASM Mirroring and Disk Group Redundancy .............................................................. 4-38 4.6.1 Mirroring, Redundancy, and Failure Group Options.................................................... 4-38 4.6.2 Oracle ASM Recovery from Read and Write I/O Errors .............................................. 4-42 4.6.3 Oracle ASM Fast Mirror Resync........................................................................................ 4-43 4.6.4 Preferred Read Failure Groups ......................................................................................... 4-46 4.7 Performance and Scalability Considerations for Disk Groups ................................................ 4-48 4.7.1 Determining the Number of Disk Groups....................................................................... 4-48 4.7.2 Performance Characteristics When Grouping Disks ..................................................... 4-48 4.7.3 Oracle ASM Storage Limits................................................................................................ 4-49 4.8 Disk Group Compatibility............................................................................................................. 4-50 4.8.1 Overview of Disk Group Compatibility .......................................................................... 4-50 4.8.2 Disk Group Compatibility Attributes .............................................................................. 4-51 4.8.3 Setting Disk Group Compatibility Attributes ................................................................. 4-53 v 4.8.4 Features Enabled By Disk Group Compatibility Attribute Settings............................ 4-57 4.8.5 Considerations When Setting Disk Group Compatibility............................................. 4-60 4.9 Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups .................................................. 4-61 4.9.1 About Oracle ASM File Access Control ........................................................................... 4-62 4.9.2 Setting Disk Group Attributes for Oracle ASM File Access Control ........................... 4-63 4.9.3 Using SQL Statements to Manage Oracle ASM File Access Control ........................... 4-64 4.10 Maintaining Disk Groups ............................................................................................................ 4-66 4.10.1 Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups .................................................................... 4-67 4.10.2 Mounting Disk Groups Using the FORCE Option....................................................... 4-67 4.10.3 Checking the Internal Consistency of Disk Group Metadata ..................................... 4-68 4.10.4 Dropping Disk Groups ..................................................................................................... 4-69 4.10.5 Renaming Disks Groups................................................................................................... 4-70 4.11 Managing Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups................................................................................. 4-72 4.11.1 About Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups ............................................................................ 4-73 4.11.2 About Oracle ASM File Groups ...................................................................................... 4-74 4.11.3 About Oracle ASM File Group Properties..................................................................... 4-76 4.11.4 About Quota Groups for Oracle ASM File Groups...................................................... 4-79 4.11.5 About Oracle ASM Extended Disk Groups................................................................... 4-80 5 Administering Oracle ASM Files, Directories, and Templates 5.1 What Types of Files Does Oracle ASM Support?......................................................................... 5-1 5.2 About Oracle ASM File Names................................
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