Mechanisms of Cell Communication

Mechanisms of Cell Communication - NO increases the cyclic...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/4/11 Mechanisms of Cell Communication By Christopher Hopper, Jacob Womack, and Casey Tate
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4/4/11 Nitric Oxide as an Intracellular Regulator Intracellular Regulator – Molecules that directly regulate the activity of specific proteins. Functions of Nitric Oxide Relax Smooth Muscle Many types of nerve cells us Nitric Oxide more directly to signal their neighbors Help kill invading microorganisms in macrophages and neutrophils How Nitric Oxide is made NO is made by the deamination of the amino acid arginine, catalyzed by enzymes called NO synthases (NOS) NOS in endothelial cells is called eNOS, while that in nerve and muscle cells is called nNos.
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4/4/11 Cyclic GMP In some cells including smooth muscle cells, NO binds to iron in the active site of the enzyme guanylyl cyclase, stimulating this enzyme to produce the small intracellular signaling molecule cyclic GMP.
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Unformatted text preview: NO increases the cyclic GMP in the cytosol within seconds. The drug inhibit the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in the penis 4/4/11 4/4/11 Morphogen Gradient The same signal acting on the same cell can have different effects on the cell depending on the signals concentration The simplest extracellular molecule is called morphogen which diffuses from a localized signaling center, generating a signal concentration gradient. The responding cells adopt different fates depending on their position in the gradient of morphogen. The cells that are closest to the signaling center that encounter the highest concentration of morphogen follow one pathway, whereas those slightly further away follow another, and it continues down the gradient. 4/4/11...
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Mechanisms of Cell Communication - NO increases the cyclic...

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