Chapter 7 - Memory

Chapter 7 - Memory - Chapter 7 Memory We rely on memory to...

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Chapter 7: Memory - We rely on memory to carry out most everyday actions and tasks…even simple task such as making a phone call requires memory of many different things (name, number, how to use phone, recognizing voice, using words for conversation, etc.) - Human memory is remarkable when we consider how much we need to store and retrieve for daily activity. - But memory is not like a video recorder…instead of storing events in great detail, brain takes a more efficient approach by combining partial memories of an event with general knowledge of the world… - Updating our memories is called constructive or reconstructive processing…gaps in memory (which are common) may be filled in by logic, guessing, or new information. is easy to have memories for things that never happened - We often remember our interpretations or constructions of something read, seen, or heard…when we experience gaps in memory, we fill them in with logical reconstructions which resemble memories of actual events…this may distort our recall - Even if the event didn’t happen the way you remember it, if you rehearse your version, you’re more likely to be convinced that your version is true. - Sensory Memory…storing an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds; the first stage of memory…sensory memory holds information for an instant (up to a few seconds)…it is rich and detailed but the information is quickly lost unless transferred to short or long-term memory - As we go through day are exposed to thousands of sights and sounds…sensory memory retains much of this information but not for very long - Sensory memory holds visual information for about ¼ of a second and holds sounds for about two seconds. Most of the information in sensory memory fades away before we can do anything with it, so this information does not move on for further processing.
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- Research evidence that says that you must pay attention to information in order for it to be processed. If you sleep with your textbooks under your pillow, you won’t absorb the information that is in them. Again, no attention equals no processing of information. We usually attend to only a few key features of an object…selectively attend to some things and ignore others - Selective attention is the process of focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others… ability to focus on one voice in a crowded room or noisy restaurant …selective attention may be controlled automatically (as when a loud noise occurs) or by instructions or by the demands of a particular task that you are performing - Attention failures can cause serious accidents. Using a cellphone while driving can cause inattentional blindness…you could easily miss seeing another car, a motorcycle, or a pedestrian…paying attention to one stimulus makes it harder to shift attention elsewhere - Short-Term Memory (STM)…Memory system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief time periods of time. Working Memory…another name for STM; like a mental “scratchpad”…can
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Chapter 7 - Memory - Chapter 7 Memory We rely on memory to...

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