Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity 11 (2)

Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity 11 (2) - Measuring...

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Measuring Earthquakes- Part II How Big ? Magnitude and Intensity
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Figure 4.25
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Seismograph www.psd.wednet.edu/jrsrhigh/ science/seismograph.GIF
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Charles F. Richter "In the course of historical or statistical study of earthquakes in any given region it is frequently desirable to have a scale for rating these shocks in terms of their original energy, independently of the effects which may be produced at any particular point of observation. On the suggestion of Mr. H. O. Wood, it is here proposed to refer tosuch a scale as a 'magnitude' scale", BSSA, 25 , 1935. Interview
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The standard body-wave magnitude formula is m b = log 10 ( A/T ) + Q( D , h ) , where A is the amplitude of ground motion (in microns); T is the corresponding period (in seconds); and Q( D , h ) is a correction factor that is a function of distance, D (degrees), between epicenter and station and focal depth, h (in kilometers), of the earthquake. Another form is m b = log 10 ( A/T ) + 0.01D +5.9 (Bolt, 1999) The standard surface-wave formula is M S = log 10 ( A/T ) + 1.66 log 10 (D) + 3.30 .
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