Lecture 3 9-09-10

Lecture 3 9-09-10 - Lecture #3 9 September 2010...

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Lecture #3 9 September 2010 Disciplinary Coupling in Physiology
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Comparative physiological studies must test, not assume, the role of adaptation. – Other potential evolutionary mechanisms include • Historical inheritance • Developmental pattern and constraint • Physical and biomechanical correlation • Phenotypic size correlation • Genetic correlation –P l e i o
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In the context of evolutionary biology: The process of improvement of fitness in a population of organisms in response to natural selection. A character, or trait, that originated and evolved due to natural selection. The appearance of adaptive traits (adaptations) through the process of adaptation occurs across generations and is dependent on an increase in the frequency of genes within a population that code for the adaptive trait. Other uses of the term “adaptation” involve shorter time scales. Biological Uses of the Term “Adaptation” QUESTIONS?
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Comparative Methods to Detect Adaptation: Effects of phylogenetic trees on interpretations of the distribution of a character. A, B, C, D, E, & F represent 6 species. Shaded designates deep sea / Hb - Open designates inshore / Hb +
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Comparative Methods to Detect Adaptation: Effects of phylogenetic trees on inferences about adaptation. A, B, C, D, E, & F represent 6 species.
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“… Physiology teaches that all biological phenomena are connected. … Any complete scientific explanation in physiology will therefore ultimately involve every level of biology.” Feder, 2005 The Challenge of Physiology Biological molecules Molecular complexes Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Every level finds its mechanism at lower levels and its significance at higher levels of biological organization.
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Physiology is coupled with Ecology -To understand how organisms interact with their environments and the effects of environmental perturbations on physiological processes, one must understand ecology. Feder, 2005 Concepts in Physiology: Disciplinary Coupling
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Concepts in Physiology: Disciplinary Coupling Physiology is coupled with Evolutionary Biology and Genetics -To understand the diversity and unity of physiological mechanisms, one must understand the role of evolution and the genetic variation necessary for evolution. Feder, 2005
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Concepts in Physiology: Disciplinary Coupling Physiology is coupled with Physics and Chemistry -To understand how organisms regulate the exchange of mass and energy, one must understand the laws of physics and chemistry. Feder, 2005
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Antarctic Ice Fish Ecological studies indicate that icefish are restricted to the very cold Antarctic oceans, where water temperatures are often -1.9 ° C. At this low temperature, water is saturated with O 2 , and metabolic requirements for O 2 are very low. Note the importance of
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2011 for the course BIO 704:360 taught by Professor John-alder during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 3 9-09-10 - Lecture #3 9 September 2010...

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