1 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Introduction to Human...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Introduction to Human Introduction Development Development 09/01/10 Outline Outline Developmental Science Periods of Development Domains of Development Contexts of Development Historical Beliefs About Children & Historical Childhood Childhood Central Issues of Developmental Science Developmental Science Developmental Def: field of study that focuses on Def: physical, intellectual, social, & emotional changes that children undergo from moment of conception onward onward Two primary goals: Understand how basic biological & cultural Understand processes shape our development processes Create effective methods for maintaining Create children’s health & well-being children’s More on Dev. Science More Developmentalist: someone who contributes someone to the field of child development to Work in a number of fields including schools, Work child-care centers, clinics, hospitals, etc. child-care Knowledge & research comes from a variety of Knowledge fields including psychology, sociology, biology, anthropology, linguistics, neuroscience anthropology, Interdisciplinary field: Research in the field Research Guided by the primary goals of the field Guided (understanding biological & cultural processes and promote healthy development) development) Research examples: Special challenges of children of Special immigrant families immigrant Influence of maternal stress & nutrition on Influence fetal development fetal Risks of medicating children who have Risks difficulty in school (ex: ADHD) difficulty Periods of Development Periods Studying the time frame between Studying conception and start of adulthood; divide into 5 periods: divide Prenatal period Infancy Early childhood Middle childhood Adolescence Domains of Development Domains As we grow & move through the As different periods of development, changes are occurring within major domains, or areas, of development: domains Social Emotional Cognitive (intellectual) Physical Contexts of Development Contexts Context provides both resources & risks Must consider the contexts in which children Must live in order to further understand their development: development: Physical environment Cultural beliefs & practices Families & peers Neighborhoods & communities Institutions (e.g., school, government) Historical Beliefs About Children Historical Why do they matter? Helps us Why understand: understand: What behaviors were expected What skills & values were taught How they spent their time Whom they socialized with How these beliefs changed over time Historical Beliefs (cont.) Historical Before 16th century, children’s special needs not considered needs Childhood not understood as unique Childhood period of life course; children considered miniature adults miniature Not provided with special toys or clothes; Not no formal education no Preformationism: belief that adult-like belief capacities, desires, interests, & emotions are present in early childhood are Historical Beliefs (cont.) Historical Protestant Reformation (16th century religious movement) religious Harsher child-rearing practices (belief that Harsher children are born in original sin); salvation from sin only possible through obedience & submission to authority submission Manuals on infant care urged mothers to Manuals eliminate “dangerous pleasures” including thumb-sucking & masturbation thumb-sucking Historical Beliefs (cont.) Historical Industrial Revolution (late 18th-early 19th century) century) Increased schooling Children placed greater economic burden on Children family family Children had more contact with peers & under Children the authority of nonfamilial adults the Decreased child death rate impacted Decreased family relationships family Drop in birthrate resulted in altered Drop structure of the family & relationships structure Millions of children worked in textile Millions factories, resulting in social concern over working conditions & acceptable labor practices practices 12-hour workdays were not uncommon Children’s welfare became an increasing Children’s concern concern Emergence of Dev. Science Emergence Darwin, Origin of Species (1859) Do the different stages of children’s Do behavior offer clues to stages of human evolution? evolution? Study of human dev. crucial to Study understanding human evolution understanding William Preyer, 1st textbook on child dev., use of scientific methods (particularly observation) to understand dev. understand By early 20th century, development By became a recognized field of scientific study study Emergence of special institutes & Emergence departments devoted solely to the study of child development child Today primary focus of field remains on Today understanding how biological & cultural forces shape dev. and how to best promote the well-being of children promote Central Issues Central Source of development How do genetics & environment interact to How contribute to development? contribute Nature (biological predispositions) vs. Nature nurture (social & cultural environment) nurture Modern developmentalists: nature & Modern nuture are closely intertwined, continually interacting and mutually affecting each other other Plasticity Plasticity To what extent is development plastic To plastic (degree to which dev. is open to change)? (degree Critical periods: period of growth during period which a specific kind of experience must occur or an ability/behavior will not develop develop “All-or-nothing” critical periods in any species All-or-nothing” are rare are E.g., 9th week after conception, presence or absence of certain hormones determines if fetus becomes male or female) fetus Plasticity (cont.) Plasticity Sensitive periods: period in which particular experience (or lack of) has more pronounced effect than if it were to occur at another time at More common in our species E.g., Children more sensitive to language E.g., learning in the first few years of life; after the age of 6 or 7, risk of failing to acquire language increases increases Central Issues (cont.) Central Continuity/discontinuity Is dev. gradual process (continuous) or Is marked by periods of rapid change (discontinuous)? (discontinuous)? How do we explain individual differences & How how stable are these differences? how Individual differences ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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