2 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Theories of Development...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Theories of Development 9/8/10 Outline Outline Grand Theories Psychodynamic theories (Freud, Erikson) Social Learning theories Constructivist theory (Piaget) Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky) Evolutionary theories Information-Processing theories Systems theories Modern Theories What is a Theory? What Def: framework of ideas or body of principles Def: that can be used to guide the collection & interpretation of a set of facts interpretation In developmental psychology, helps to guide In research & interpret findings research Ex: if a child is misbehaving (hitting others in Ex: school), how do we interpret this behavior? school), Will depend on your theoretical orientation “Grand” Theories Psychodynamic Theory: explores influence Psychodynamic on dev. & developmental stages of universal biological drives & life experiences of individuals individuals Freud (1856-1939) Trained as a neurologist; focused on biology Founder of psychoanalysis (method of clinical Founder treatment) treatment) Influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution; Influenced believed all biological drives have single goal of survival of species survival Behavior of all children is motivated by need to Behavior satisfy fundamental sex drive satisfy “Grand” Theories Psychodynamic theory (Freud) Psychosexual stages: each stage each associated with conflicts between child’s desires & social expectations; the way these conflicts are experienced determine later personality later Psychosexual stages (Freud) Psychosexual s Oral stage (1stt year): mouth is focus of pleasure as baby sucks & bites pleasure nd Anal stage (2nd year): anus is focus as baby learns to control elimination (“potty training”) training”) Phallic stage (3-6 years): develop sexual curiosity, begin to masturbate; develop sexual interest in opposite sex parent sexual Latency stage (7 years-puberty): sexual impulses are submerged impulses Genital stage (adolescence): seek to satisfy sexual needs satisfy Freud (cont.) Freud Our personalities made up of 3 mental Our structures: structures: Id: present from birth, consists of present satisfying biological drives satisfying Ego: emerges in early childhood, rational emerges part of our minds part Superego: last to emerge; assures our behaviors are socially acceptable behaviors Erikson (1902-1994) Erikson Emphasis on social & cultural, rather than Emphasis social rather biological, aspects of dev. biological, Believed dev. continues throughout our Believed life span, rather than stopping at adolescence adolescence Main challenge in life is our search for our Main identity (“who am I?”) identity We go through psychosocial stages; in We each stage, we must accomplish a task in order to move on order Psychosocial stages (Erikson) Psychosocial s Trust vs. mistrust (1stt year): learn to trust others, or to mistrust them; based on needs being met needs nd Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (2nd year): learn to exercise will or doubt they are capable of doing things on their own capable Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years): learn to take initiative or if not allowed to do so, feel guilty for attempting independence guilty Psychosocial stages (cont.) Psychosocial Industry vs. inferiority (6-12 yrs): learn to be competent & effective at activities valued by peers & adults or otherwise feel inferior inferior Identity vs. role confusion (12-19 years): establish a sense of personal identity as part of social group, or else become confused about who they are & what to do in life in Social Learning Theories Social Learning involves modifying behavior Learning by forming associations between observable behavior & its consequences consequences Explore how certain experiences (such Explore as rewards, punishments) change likelihood of child engaging in particular behavior particular Social Learning (cont.) Social Children may be ‘shaped’ to become walkers, Children talkers, readers, & friends talkers, Aspects of personality (e.g., aggression, Aspects dependency) are learned & can be unlearned dependency) Key Concepts: Modeling: process by which children observe & process imitate others imitate Self-efficacy: beliefs about one’s own abilities to deal effectively with the environment deal Constructivist Theory (Piaget) Constructivist Children play an active role in shaping Children active their own cognitive development their Actively construct reality on the basis of Actively their experiences with the world; creative process process Children progress through a series of Children stages of cognitive development stages Constructivist Theory (cont.) Constructivist Each stage reflects a unique, age-related way Each of understanding reality of E.g., 6 month-old baby playing with blocks (chew E.g., on them & bang them on floor); at 6 years old, comes to understand that ‘better’ use of blocks is to stack them or throw them at someone else to All children go through the same stages All regardless of environment regardless Assumes process of developmental change is Assumes universal (same in all groups) universal Constructivist Theory (cont.) Constructivist Key concepts: Schema: mental structure that provides a model for understanding the world model Ex: primitive schema for sucking; enables Ex: them to draw milk from a nipple them Key Concepts (cont.): Key Assimilation: incorporating new experiences Assimilation: into existing schemas, thereby strengthening them them Ex: discovering a pacifier Ex: discovering Accommodation: modifying a schema so it Accommodation: can be applied to both old & new experiences can • Ex: baby trying to suck on caregiver’s Ex: shoulder only to discover it does not have same qualities of nipple or pacifier same Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky) Sociocultural Agreed that biological (nature) & social Agreed (nurture) factors help shape development, but also claimed culture culture plays a role plays Ex: Oksapmin children in New Guinea Ex: learn mathematical concepts using a system that refers to 27 specific body parts rather than a formal number system parts Sociocultural Theory (cont.) Sociocultural Zone of proximal development: gap gap between what children can accomplish independently & what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent others Proximal (nearby): assistance provided by Proximal adults complements & builds on child’s existing abilities existing Ex: school achievement Modern Theories of Development Development Evolutionary theory Information-processing Information-processing theory theory Systems theories Critical theories Evolutionary Theory Evolutionary Evolutionary theories: explain human explain behavior in terms of how it contributed to the survival of the species & to address ways in which our evolutionary past continues to influence individual dev. influence Ethology: focus on development of Ethology behaviors that contribute to the survival of the individual survival E.g., what products of evolution do E.g., children possess that insures they will be cared for? Infant’s ‘cute’ appearance: certain features Infant’s including large head, large eyes set low on forehead, big round cheeks, button nose, short & heavy limbs short Information-Processing Theories Information-Processing Concern with how information flows Concern through the child’s developing mental system system How child comes to process, store, How organize, retrieve, & manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways information Information-processing (cont.) Information-processing Intellectual functioning consists of Intellectual “hardware” (brain structure & neural (brain features) & “software” (strategies & features) (strategies methods we use to process information) methods Ex: rehearsing new information over & Ex: over to remember it; tying a string around your finger to avoid forgetting something your Systems theories Systems Envisions development in terms of Envisions complex wholes made up of parts & explores how these parts are organized and how they interact over time and E.g., behaviors of child or contexts in E.g., which they live make up these systems which Systems theories (cont.) Systems Two types of systems theories Dynamic systems: understand how understand new complex systems of behavior develop from interaction of less complex parts complex Ex: child’s system of reaching-andgrasping emerges from interaction of grasping visual & motor (movement) components visual Systems theories (cont.) Systems Ecological systems theory: Ecological organization of the multiple environmental contexts within which children develop (Bronfenbrenner) children Microsystem: “face-to-face”, daily basis— home, school, peers Mesosystem: links face-to-face settingsparents’ involvement in school Systems theories (cont.) Systems Exosystem: settings that affect but do not Exosystem: include child—parents’ workplace include Macrosystem: values,customs, hazards, & Macrosystem: resources of larger culture resources Systems interact & influence one another Ex: Great Depression era study found that Ex: with high unemployment came deterioration of family relationships, decline in parenting skills, & children’s dev. & well-being placed at risk dev. Critical Theories Critical Address cultural biases that may be Address present in traditional developmental theories theories Ex: feminist approaches explore ways that Ex: both gender & cultural beliefs about gender are integral in development gender Other critical theory approaches may Other focus on how race, ethnicity, & socioeconomic status influence development development ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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