5 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology The Fetal Period Maternal...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology The Fetal Period Maternal Conditions 9/20/10 Outline Outline Prenatal Period 3. The Fetal Period Maternal Conditions Maternal Attitudes & Stress Nutritional Influences Teratogens Fetal Period Fetal Begins 9th week after conception, with Begins with the first signs of the hardening of the bones, and continues until birth bones, By the end of 16 weeks: head is erect; head lower limbs are developed; ears migrate from neck to sides of the head migrate th End of 7th month: lungs capable of End lungs breathing air; eyes open & can respond to light to th End of 8th month: many folds of the many brain are present Fetus is becoming even more responsive to the uterine environment responsive Mother’s digestive system & heart are Mother’s sources of noise sources Her movements provide motion stimuli Sensory Capacities Sensory Sensing motion Fetus capable of sensing changes in Fetus mother’s posture & orienting itself as its floats inside the amniotic sac floats 26 weeks after conception, fetus responds 26 to light (causes them to move, heart rate changes) changes) Seeing Sensory Capacities (cont.) Sensory Hearing Response to sound 5-6 mos. after Response conception conception Also responds to change in sounds at 6-7 Also mos. (changes in heart rate) mos. Mother’s voice heard best, transmitted as Mother’s vibrations through her body vibrations Studies have shown that newborns prefer Studies recordings of mother’s voice as it sounded to them as a fetus in the womb vs. her natural voice natural Fetal Activity Fetal Movements become increasingly varied Movements & coordinated coordinated By 15 weeks, fetus capable of all the By movements observable in infants: movements Head turning Leg flexing Stretching Jaw opening Hand-face contact Yawning Learning in the Womb Learning The Cat in the Hat study (DeCasper & Spence, 1986), p. 92 Spence, Pregnant women asked to read aloud a passage Pregnant from The Cat in the Hat twice a day for last month & a half of pregnancy half Tested babies with pacifier that was wired to Tested record sucking rates record Found that infants modified rates of sucking Found pacifier to produce The Cat in the Hat The Investigators concluded that learning in the womb Investigators influenced the sounds they found rewarding after birth birth Maternal Conditions Maternal Attitudes & Stress Strong relationship between mother’s Strong negative attitude towards pregnancy & risk negative of low birth rate low Mothers undergoing stressful conditions Mothers secrete adrenaline & cortisol hormones which may affect motor activity of fetus which Stress during pregnancy associated with premature delivery & low birth weight premature Maternal Conditions Maternal Nutritional Influences Well-balanced diet includes essential Well-balanced vitamins & minerals in addition to increased intake of folic acid, calcium, and iron iron Helps insure healthy development & Helps prevention of certain birth defects prevention Severe nutritional deprivation during first 3 Severe mos. of pregnancy can result in abnormalities of central nervous system, premature birth, & death premature Folic acid essential to development of Folic neural tube (later develops into brain & spinal cord) spinal Lack of folic acid may lead to defects in Lack neural tube including spina bifida (disease of spinal cord & backbone) of Folic acid takes time to build up in the Folic system so women are advised to have adequate levels in their diet prior to prior becoming pregnant becoming Poor maternal nutrition can lead to low Poor birth weight & miscarriage birth Conclusions regarding effects of poor Conclusions maternal nutrition should be interpreted cautiously as poor maternal nutrition is cautiously often associated with an impoverished environment (inadequate housing, environment sanitation, education, medical care) sanitation, Maternal Conditions Maternal Teratogens: environmental agents that environmental increase risk of deviations in normal dev. & can lead to serious abnormalities or death abnormalities Drugs, infections, pollution, & radiation Drugs, most common types most Greatest danger is during first 2 weeks of Greatest life Effects of teratogen usually specific to a Effects particular organ (e.g., mercury compounds cause brain damage) cause Susceptibility to teratogenic agents Susceptibility depends on mother’s age, nutrition, uterine condition, & hormonal balance uterine Risk of malformation highest when mother is Risk younger than 20 or older than 40 younger Impact of teratogens appears to increase if Impact mother suffers from diabetes, metabolic imbalance, or liver dysfunction (among other disorders) disorders) Drugs Drugs Caffeine Some studies have linked large doses with in Some increased rate of spontaneous abortion & low birth weight; intake should be limited intake Some known to cause abnormalities Some abnormalities Avoid antibiotics streptomycin & tetracycline; Avoid anticonvulsants; artificial hormones; Thorazine (treats schizophrenia); Valium (tranquilizer); Accutane (treats severe acne) Accutane Prescription drugs Tobacco Tobacco Not known to produce birth defects but Not smoking is related to increase in rate of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, & neonatal death; low birth weight neonatal Secondhand smoke also harmful Risk of fetal alcohol syndrome: Risk fetal underdeveloped brain, abnormally small head, eye abnormalities, congenital heart disease, malformations of the face disease, Alcohol Heroin & Methadone Heroin Babies born to heroin addicted mothers Babies more likely to be premature, underweight, & vulnerable to respiratory illness vulnerable Must be given heroin or methadone to Must avoid withdrawal effects avoid Use associated with stillbirths or Use premature birth, low birth weights, stroke, birth defects Babies often described as irritable, Babies uncoordinated, & slow to learn uncoordinated, Cocaine Infections & Health Conditions Infections HIV & AIDS May be transmitted from mother to baby May via placenta barrier or by exposure to mother’s infected blood during delivery mother’s Risk of transmission increases with length Risk of time mother has been infected of Currently 7th leading cause of death in children under age of 4 children Pollution Pollution Environmental toxins (e.g., mercury) linked Environmental to disorders in fetal development, including birth defects, growth retardation, premature birth, & fetal death premature Incidence of birth defects abnormally high Incidence in areas of heavy atmospheric pollution in 1970s: Brazilian industrial city of Cubatao, 1970s: air pollution from petrochemical & steel plants 65 of ever 1000 babies born in Cubatao 65 died shortly after birth because brains had failed to develop (double the rate of neighboring communities) Various other maternal conditions affect prenatal conditions including sexually transmitted diseases (herpes, gonorrhea, & syphilis); diabetes, chicken pox, hepatitis, hypertension, mumps, influenza, etc. (see table 3.3 on mumps, p. 103) p. ...
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