Lecture_092210 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Childbirth...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Childbirth Neonatal Period 9/22/10 Outline Outline Childbirth Stages of Labor Cultural Variations Childbirth in the U.S. Newborn’s Condition Assessment (Physical & Behavioral) Problems & Complications Stages of Labor Stages 1st stage Begins when uterine contractions begin to cause Begins cervix to dilate cervix Continues until opening of uterus into the vagina Continues is fully dilated & connections between bones of the pelvis become more flexible the Norm for 1st births is 14 hours Contractions 15-20 min. apart, last 15-60 seconds Contractions (at beginning of labor) (at Contractions become more frequent, intense, & Contractions longer as labor progresses longer Stages of Labor Stages 2nd Stage Begins as baby is pushed headfirst Begins through fully dilated cervix into the vagina through Contractions now no more than 1 min. Contractions no apart & last 1 min. apart Pressure of baby & contractions cause Pressure mother to bear down & push baby out mother Baby’s head & brow usually first to emerge Breech position: feet or buttocks emerge feet first; 3-4% of single births; places fetus & mother at risk for serious complications mother Stages of Labor Stages 3rd Stage Occurs when the baby has emerged from Occurs the vagina & uterus contracts around its diminished contents diminished Placenta separates from uterine wall, with Placenta other fetal membranes; expelled by contractions (‘afterbirth’) contractions Cultural Variations Cultural Variations in level of assistance during Variations assistance childbirth childbirth Bajura (eastern Nepal): Belief that God will be displeased if woman Belief gives birth in her home (family members & cattle will get sick); delivers baby alone in a shed with no help no Belief that men are like children (should be Belief excluded from childbirth process); pregnancy concealed as long as possible; female kin assist with labor female Ngoni of East Africa Cultural Variations Cultural Maya (Yucatan peninsula) Trained midwife and husband present; Trained and husband expected to help & witness pain of labor; if he is absent & baby dies, absence will be attributed as cause absence Cultural Variations Cultural Variations also exist in location of Variations location births births Industrialized countries Majority of births take place in hospitals Majority with assistance of doctor or trained midwife midwife Increase in alternative ways of giving birth Birthing at home with midwife Special birthing centers (often near a hospital) Childbirth in the U.S. Childbirth Majority of babies born in the U.S. are Majority born in hospitals with delivery by a physician physician Drugs used to lessen pain during Drugs childbirth childbirth Anesthetics (dulls overall feeling) Analgesics (reduce perception of pain) Sedatives (reduce anxiety) Childbirth in the U.S. Childbirth Concerns about effects drugs have on Concerns newborns: newborns: Less attentive; more irritable Poorer muscle tone Less vigorous sucking responses Weakness Educational classes which teach relaxation & Educational breathing exercises to deal with pain breathing Emotional support provided by baby’s father, a Emotional friend, or family member friend, Alternatives to medication: Medical interventions Medical Labor may be induced when baby is Labor overdue or situation is life-threatening overdue Inducing labor: rupture membrane of Inducing amniotic sac or by giving mother form of hormone oxytocin (initiates contractions) oxytocin Increase in induced labors Increase Associated with higher rates of cesarean Associated delivery (surgical removal of baby from uterus by making incision through mother’s stomach) mother’s Concerns about increase of cesarean operations in U.S: operations Increase may be unnecessary; Raises cost of childbirth; Raises Expose mother to risk of post operation Expose infections; infections; Separation from baby during healing; Detrimental to babies’ well-being Detrimental (susceptibility to hay fever & asthma); (susceptibility Risk of maternal death Baby’s Experience of Birth Baby’s Stressful experience for babies (passing Stressful through a narrow opening places pressure on the head; umbilical cord can become constricted, reducing supply of oxygen) constricted, Studies have documented a surge in the Studies fetus’s production of stress hormones around the time of birth around These hormones prepare baby to survive These outside of the womb; also puts them in a state of alertness state Newborn’s Condition Newborn’s Average weight of 7-7.5 pounds (5.5-10 Average pounds considered normal range) pounds Loss of fluid causes most babies to Loss lose approx. 7% of weight during first days of life (later regained by 10 days of age) of Average length is 20 inches long Average (length mostly determined by size of mother’s uterus, not genetics) mother’s Assessing Viability Assessing Apgar Scale Used to assess newborn’s physical Used physical condition (i.e., need for emergency care?) condition Measure baby at 1 min., & again at 5 min. Assess 5 vital signs: heart rate, respiratory Assess effort, muscle tone, reflex responsivity, & color color Score of less than 4 requires immediate Score medical attention medical Assessing Health Assessing Brazelton Neonatal Scale Used to assess newborn’s behavioral Used condition, esp. for those at risk for condition esp. developmental difficulties developmental Includes tests of: Reflexes, Reflexes, Motor capacities, Muscle tone, Capacity for responding to people & objects Capacity Capacity to control own behavior, Attention Problems & Complications Problems Prematurity Babies born before 37th week are Babies before considered to be preterm, or premature preterm or premature Leading cause of death among preterm Leading infants is immaturity of the lungs immaturity Other obstacles to survival for preterm is Other immaturity of digestive & immune systems immaturity Require additional care including special Require equipment to feed them & special formulas equipment Contributing factors to prematurity Contributing Twins more likely to be born early Very young women (immature Very reproductive systems) reproductive Women with many pregnancies close Women together together Women who smoke Poor health Low socioeconomic status Low (undernourishment, chronically ill, overweight, etc.) Problems & Complications Problems Low Birth Weight Less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces Often preterm, but not always Small for gestational age: birth weight birth falls in lowest 10% for their gestational age; usually experienced intrauterine growth restriction (didn’t grow at normal growth rate) rate) Developmental Consequences Developmental Both prematurity & low birth weight Both place babies at risk for dev. problems including: including: Delays in intellectual & language Delays development development Attention disorders Delays in neurological functioning Developmental Consequences Developmental Low birth weight babies Decrease in coordination & intellectual Decrease capacities capacities Comfortable socioeconomic Comfortable circumstances, intact family, mothers with higher education, less likely to suffer negative effects from birth condition negative Living in impoverished homes or with Living neglectful parents, more likely to suffer serious developmental problems in later years years Overcoming risks Beginning Parent-Child Relationship Relationship Baby’s appearance may influence Baby’s attachment attachment Lorenz (German ethologist) research Newborns have certain physical characteristics Newborns which distinguish them from adults (e.g., large head & eyes) head “Babyness”: combination of features which seem to appeal to adults & evoke caregiving behaviors to Some studies indicate that parents interact less Some attentively & less lovingly with infants they consider unattractive ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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