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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
Early Infancy (cont.) 9/29/10 Outline Outline
Organization of Behavior Reflexes Piaget—Sensorimotor stage Temperament Sleeping Organization of Behavior Organization
Reflexes: specific, well-integrated Reflexes: automatic responses to specific types of stimulation of Some are adaptive Eyeblink reflex: protects eye from bright protects lights, foreign objects that may cause harm harm Sucking reflex: adaptive during infancy Reflexes Reflexes
Rooting Baby turns head & opens mouth when Baby touched on the cheek; component of nursing nursing Toes fan out & curl when bottom of baby’s Toes foot is stroked foot Make grasping motion with arms in Make response to loud noise or experiencing feeling of being dropped feeling Babinski reflex Moro reflex Moro Reflex to Coordinated Action Reflex
Reflexes are important building blocks Reflexes for engaging in more coordinated behaviors, also known as action action E.g., new action of nursing: combines E.g., nursing combines reflexes of rooting, sucking, swallowing, & breathing breathing Piaget’s Theory of Developing Action Action
Provides explanation for transition Provides from reflexive behavior to coordinated action action Stems from belief that children actively Stems organize understanding of world through engagement with it through Understanding develops in stages Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) Sensorimotor Process of adaptation through which Process infants gain knowledge of the world; consists of coordinating sensory perceptions & simple motor responses perceptions Substage 1 (0-1 ½ months)
Infants are exercising reflex schemas: Infants involuntary rooting, sucking, grasping, & looking looking Substage 2 (1 ½- 4 months) Substage Existing reflexes are extended in time or Existing extended to new objects (e.g., sucking thumb) thumb) Primary circular reaction: repeat repeat pleasurable bodily actions for their own sake (e.g., bringing thumb back to mouth to continue sucking) to Temperament Temperament
Def: individual’s emotional & individual’s behavioral characteristics that appear to be consistent across situations and stable over time stable Temperamental traits may contribute to Temperamental adjustment problems later in childhood & adolescence (e.g., social withdrawal) adolescence Genetic factors also provide foundation Genetic for temperamental differences for Chess & Thomas research in 1950s Chess Clinical interviews with parents Inquired about child’s reactions to Inquired first bath, to wet diapers, & to first taste of solid food taste From data, identified nine key traits From of temperament including activity level, adaptability, intensity of reaction, quality of mood, etc. reaction, Chess & Thomas (cont.) Chess Classified them in one of 3 broad Classified temperament categories: temperament Easy babies: playful, regular in biological functions, & adapt readily to new circumstances circumstances Difficult babies: irregular in biological functions, irritable, often respond negatively to new situations negatively Slow-to-warm-up babies: low activity level, low typically mild responses typically Sleeping Sleeping
Amount of time spent asleep gradually Amount decreases: decreases: 1st week: about 16 ½ hours a day End of 4 weeks: about 15 hours a day End of 4 mos: less than 14 hours a End day day Study of 120 societies around the world: world: 64% of mothers report infants sleep 64% in same bed with them (co-sleeping) in Co-sleeping common in highly urban Co-sleeping (Japan, Italy) & rural communities (Mexico, China) (Mexico, Few countries in which infants Few expected to sleep on their own (U.S., Germany) Germany) Suggests sleeping practices are Suggests related to broad cultural themes (e.g., self-reliance; interdependence) self-reliance; Overall, either way does not seem to Overall, make a major difference in development or health development Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (SIDS)
Most common cause for death in 1-6 Most mos. old infants (in U.S.) mos. Most SIDS deaths occur between 2-5 Most months of age months Possible causes: Sleep apnea: irregular breathing due to irregular brain’s periodic failure to activate muscles controlling the lungs controlling Accidental smothering from pillows, Accidental blankets, etc. or when sleeping in bed with an adult an Other potential prenatal & postnatal risk factors: risk Maternal malnutrition & smoking during Maternal pregnancy, which increase chance of prematurity prematurity Postnatal exposure to secondary tobacco Postnatal smoke (greater the exposure, greater the risk) risk) Formula, rather than breast feeding Placing infants to sleep on their stomach Placing on soft mattress with stuffed animals or other toys in the crib other Prevention: Prevention: “Back to Sleep” campaign in early 90s; urge parents to place infants on their back back instead of on their stomach instead Sleeping on stomach increases chance of Sleeping accidently obstructing their breathing accidently Rate of SIDS has been cut in half since Rate campaign’s launch campaign’s ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.
- Fall '10