Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
Ch. 5 Physical & Cognitive Ch. Development in Infancy Development 10/6/10 Outline Outline
Physical Growth Size & Shape Musculoskeletal System Brain Development Motor Development Fine Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills Physical Growth Physical
Size & Shape s 1stt year of life: triple in weight & grow triple approx. 10 inches approx. On average: 1-year-old weighs 20-22 1-year-old pounds & is 28-30 in. tall pounds Children grow at widely varying rates Genetics, diet, & socioeconomic status Genetics, contribute to variations in growth rate contribute Musculoskeletal system Musculoskeletal Newborn’s bones are relatively soft; ossify Newborn’s (harden) gradually as minerals are deposited in them after birth deposited Bones in hand & wrist among first to Bones ossify; harden by end of the 1st year ossify; Muscles increase in length & thickness Gender differences in growth rate:
At birth, female’s skeleton is 4-6 weeks more At mature than male’s (by puberty: 2 years more advanced) advanced) Brain development Brain Prefrontal area (behind the forehead) of cerebral cortex changes in function around 7-9 mos. around Plays important role in voluntary behavior Plays voluntary (increase in ability to regulate self) Begin to ‘stop & think’ E.g., stop self from grabbing just anything E.g., they see; use teddy bear to keep from being upset during naptime being Brain & experience Brain Development of brain is influenced by Development infant’s experience infant’s How might development be affected by How periods of deprivation? periods Study of children in Romanian orphanages Study adopted by families in Western Europe & North America in early 1990s North Brain & experience (cont.), p. 166 Brain E.g., Children in Romanian orphanage E.g., during 1990s during Limited social interaction & intellectual Limited stimulation stimulation Researchers: could experience of normal Researchers: adoptive home make up for previous deprivations? deprivations? Later showed significant impairments in Later intellectual functioning if they lived in orphanage beyond 6 months of age orphanage Infant’s brain undergoes much dev. Infant’s between 6-24 mos. of age Brain structures are especially sensitive to Brain infant’s experiences infant’s Orphans in study: brain scans showed Orphans significant deficits in functioning of areas of the limbic system (emotion & motivation) motivation) Motor Development Motor
Fine motor skills: involve development involve & coordination of small muscles, such as those that move fingers & the eyes as Around 3 months: babies gain voluntary babies control over movements, begin to see reaching & grasping reaching Fine motor skills (cont.) Fine 6 months: can reach & grasp objects; months: shake rattle; move toys from one hand to the other the 12 months: can grasp objects with thumb 12 & index finger; put small objects in cup or container container 18 months: can pull off hat, socks, etc; can turn pages of a book; scribble with crayons crayons 24 months: feed self with spoon; drink feed from straw; open cabinets, drawers, etc. from Motor Development Motor
Gross motor skills: involve large involve muscles of body & make locomotion possible possible Locomotion: ability to move around on one’s own; occurs towards end of 1st one’s year year Motor Development Motor
Crawling Most infants able to crawl on flat, smooth Most surfaces around 8-9 months of age surfaces Allows them to explore environment in Allows new way new Motor Development Motor
Walking Towards 1st year of life, babies able to stand & walk stand Becomes possible when all the component Becomes motor skills—upright posture, leg alternation, muscle strength, weight shifting, sense of balance have developed & child is able to practice them practice Role of Practice in Motor Development Development
Practice may affect age at which babies Practice reach motor milestones reach Kipsigis of rural Kenya: Kipsigis Babies taught to sit up, stand, & walk not Babies long after birth long On average, Kipsigis babies will sit up 5 On weeks earlier & walking 3 weeks earlier than US babies than Nomadic Ache of eastern Paraguay Nomadic Ache children under 3 yrs. Spend most of Ache their time in direct physical contact w/ mother mother On average, begin walking at about 23 On months (almost full year later than US children) children) In the US: In Back to Sleep campaign SIDS (urging Back parents to place infants on their back to sleep) sleep) Delayed onset of crawling by as much as 2 Delayed months months Face down position allows babies to Face practice bearing weight with arms, trying out coordination of arms & legs, etc. out ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.
- Fall '10