Lecture_101310 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch 7 Early...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch. 7 Early Childhood: Language 10/13/10 Outline Outline Progress of Language Development Domains of Language Acquisition Phonological Development Semantic Development Grammar Development Pragmatic Development Early Childhood & Language Early Early childhood: period between ages Early 2 ½-6 years ½-6 By 6 years of age, vocabularies are By anywhere between 8,000-14,000 words anywhere Progress of Language Dev. Progress Birth Phoneme perception; discrimination of Phoneme nonlanguage sounds nonlanguage Cooing 3 months 6 months Babbling First words Use of words to attract adults’ attention 9 months 12 months Progress of Language Dev. Progress 18 months 18 Vocabulary spurt First two-word sentences (telegraphic speech) Correct response to indirect requests (e.g., “is the Correct door shut?”) door Creation of indirect requests (“You’re standing on Creation my blocks!”) my Modification of speech to take listener into Modification account account Early awareness of grammatical categories 24 months 30 months Basic Domains of Lang. Acquisition Acquisition Lang. is a system; each domain is Lang. connected to all of the others connected Four domains of lang. acquisition: Phonological Development Semantic Development Grammar Pragmatic Development Phonological Development Phonological Process through which children Process acquire knowledge of how to segment strings of speech sounds into meaningful units of lang. meaningful Phonemes: basic units of sound (/t/) Morphemes: basic units of meaning Words are composed of one or more Words morphemes E.g., the word horses E.g., horses Semantic Development Semantic Process of learning the meanings of Process words & word combinations words Challenge for children is in figuring out Challenge how the sounds they hear are meant to refer to something in their experience--refer an object, event, or feeling Earliest Vocabulary Earliest By 13-14 mos. of age, able to use approx. By 10 words 10 By 17-18 mos., approx. 50 words By 2 years, approx. 300 words Receptive vocab. (vocab. they understand) Receptive is even larger: for every 10 words produced, can understand over 100 produced, 1st 100 words in vocab. are predominantly nouns used to label objects nouns Word Errors Word Underextension: applying labels in a narrower way than adults do narrower E.g., using the word “bottle” to label only their E.g., bottle but not others bottle Overextension: error of applying verbal error errors too broadly errors E.g., Calling a strange man “Daddy”; seeing E.g., the ocean & saying “bath” the Figurative Language Figurative Metaphors: use of a word or phrase in a use way that draws a direct comparison between the thing it usually refers to and some other, unrelated thing some E.g., throwing bits of Styrofoam into the air & E.g., shouting “Snow!” shouting Grammar Grammar Some evidence that children possess grasp Some of grammatical rules early on in their language dev., in studies that ask children to interpret grammatically correct sentences using nonsense words using Shown pictures of duck & bunny interacting Told that the duck is “gorping” the bunny (or vice Told versa) versa) Looked longer at picture where duck was acting Looked on the bunny (duck is active agent, bunny is the object being acted upon) object Grammar (cont.) Grammar Syntactic bootstrapping: process of process using grammar to learn the meaning of new words new Learning meaning of the word “gorp” in Learning the study the Pragmatic Development Pragmatic Process of learning the social & Process cultural conventions that govern how lang. is used in particular contexts lang. I.e., saying the wrong thing at the wrong I.e., time time Pragmatic Development (cont.) Pragmatic Conversational acts: actions to achieve actions goals performed through lang. & gesture gesture Protoimperatives: early ways of engaging early another person to achieve a desired goal another E.g., holding a cup & saying “more” to get a E.g., refill refill Protodeclaratives: ways of establishing Protodeclaratives: joint attention & sustaining a dialogue joint E.g., Pointing to a dog & saying “doggie” ...
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