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Lecture_101810 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch 7 Early...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch. 7 Early Childhood: Language 10/18/10 Outline Outline Progress of Language Development Domains of Language Acquisition Phonological Development Semantic Development Grammar Development Pragmatic Development Early Childhood & Language Early Early childhood: period between ages Early 2 ½-6 years ½-6 By 6 years of age, vocabularies are By anywhere between 8,000-14,000 words anywhere Progress of Language Dev. Progress Birth Phoneme perception; discrimination of Phoneme nonlanguage sounds nonlanguage Cooing 3 months 6 months Babbling First words Use of words to attract adults’ attention 9 months 12 months Progress of Language Dev. Progress 18 months 18 Vocabulary spurt First two-word sentences (telegraphic speech) Correct response to indirect requests (e.g., “is the Correct door shut?”) door Creation of indirect requests (“You’re standing on Creation my blocks!”) my Modification of speech to take listener into Modification account account Early awareness of grammatical categories 24 months 30 months Biological Key to Language Biological Left side of the brain plays dominant role in Left language ability language Middle of 19th century, brain bases of lang. became area of interest in medicine & psychology area Work with patients who were experiencing Work aphasia (speech disorders) (speech “Language areas” of the brain Damage to these areas results in lang. Damage impairments impairments Broca’s area: outside surface of left frontal outside lobe lobe Broca’s aphasia: speech is either absent or speech severely disrupted when this area of the brain is damaged damaged Meaningful phrases such as “is”, “and”, & Meaningful “the” may be omitted from speech “the” E.g., person may say “Walk dog” rather than “I E.g., will take the dog for a walk” will Wernicke’s area: area slightly to the rear of area Broca’s area Broca’s Wernicke’s aphasia: inability to comprehend Wernicke’s language when this area is damaged language Often produce long sentences with unnecessary Often words E.g., “You know that smoodle pinkered & that I E.g., want to get him round & take care of him like you want before” rather than “The dog needs to go out so I will take him for a walk” go Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas Recent research with children suggests that Recent normal lang. abilities can still develop even if there’s damage to Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas areas Studies with children who suffer strokes Studies before, during, or after birth: before, Still acquire language, although at the lower Still end of normal range end Plasticity of brain: if there is left hemisphere Plasticity damage, parts of right hemisphere become brain center for language brain Environmental Key to Language Environmental Case of Genie Locked up & isolated by her father shortly after Locked 2nd birthday up to age 13 Learned to chew solid food, table manners, how Learned to express emotions, etc. to However, lang. development never achieved However, normal levels of dev. Never learned to ask a real question or to form Never a proper negative sentence proper Participation in normal social environment is Participation essential to the process of language acquisition essential Language-Deprived Environments Deaf children born to deaf parents who Deaf communicate in sign lang. acquire lang. at least as rapidly as hearing children w/ hearing parents parents Deaf children whose parents refuse to use sign Deaf lang. will often develop gestures in “home sign”, communication through pantomime communication Research indicates “home signs” show similar Research characteristics of lang. & serve similar functions (e.g., communicate needs) functions Basic Domains of Lang. Acquisition Acquisition Lang. is a system; each domain is Lang. connected to all of the others connected Four domains of lang. acquisition: Phonological Development Semantic Development Grammar Pragmatic Development Phonological Development Phonological Process through which children Process acquire knowledge of how to segment strings of speech sounds into meaningful units of lang. meaningful Phonemes: basic units of sound (/t/) Morphemes: basic units of meaning Words are composed of one or more Words morphemes E.g., the word horses E.g., horses Semantic Development Semantic Process of learning the meanings of Process words & word combinations words Challenge for children is in figuring out Challenge how the sounds they hear are meant to refer to something in their experience--refer an object, event, or feeling Earliest Vocabulary Earliest By 13-14 mos. of age, able to use approx. By 10 words 10 By 17-18 mos., approx. 50 words By 2 years, approx. 300 words Receptive vocab. (vocab. they understand) (vocab. is even larger: for every 10 words produced, can understand over 100 produced, 1st 100 words in vocab. are predominantly nouns used to label objects nouns Word Errors Word Underextension: applying labels in a narrower way than adults do narrower E.g., using the word “bottle” to label only their E.g., bottle but not others bottle Overextension: error of applying verbal errors too broadly errors E.g., Calling a strange man “Daddy”; seeing E.g., the ocean & saying “bath” the Figurative Language Figurative Metaphors: use of a word or phrase in a use way that draws a direct comparison between the thing it usually refers to and some other, unrelated thing some E.g., throwing bits of Styrofoam into the air & E.g., shouting “Snow!” shouting Grammar Grammar Some evidence that children possess grasp Some of grammatical rules early on in their language dev., in studies that ask children to interpret grammatically correct sentences using nonsense words using Shown pictures of duck & bunny interacting Told that the duck is “gorping” the bunny (or vice Told versa) versa) Looked longer at picture where duck was acting Looked on the bunny (duck is active agent, bunny is the object being acted upon) object Grammar (cont.) Grammar Syntactic bootstrapping: process of process using grammar to learn the meaning of new words new Learning meaning of the word “gorp” in Learning the study the Pragmatic Development Pragmatic Process of learning the social & Process cultural conventions that govern how lang. is used in particular contexts lang. I.e., saying the wrong thing at the wrong I.e., time time Pragmatic Development (cont.) Pragmatic Conversational acts: actions to achieve actions goals performed through lang. & gesture gesture Protoimperatives: early ways of engaging early another person to achieve a desired goal another E.g., holding a cup & saying “more” to get a E.g., refill refill Protodeclaratives: ways of establishing Protodeclaratives: joint attention & sustaining a dialogue joint E.g., Pointing to a dog & saying “doggie” ...
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