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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
Social & Emotional Social Development Development 10/25/10 Outline Outline
Identity Development Sex-role Identity Psychodynamic View Social Learning View Cognitive-Developmental View Gender Schema View Cultural View Ethnic Identity Identity Development Identity
How do children come to develop a How sense of themselves in relation to the societies in which they live? societies Socialization: process by which process children acquire the standards, values, & knowledge of their society Begins at birth with help from significant Begins people in their lives Parents, community, schools, etc. help to Parents, teach acceptable behaviors teach Personality formation: process through Personality process which children develop their own unique patterns of feeling, thinking, & behaving in a wide variety of circumstances circumstances Early origins of personality formation are Early present in infancy present Initial temperamental styles of interaction Initial will become integrated with developing cognitive understanding, emotional responses, & habits responses, Developmentalists agree identification Developmentalists identification is essential to socialization is Psychological process in which children Psychological try to look, act, feel, & be like significant people in their lives people Disagree on mechanisms by which Disagree identification is achieved identification Vast majority of studies of identification in Vast early childhood have focused on sex-role identity & ethnic identity identity Sex-role Identity Sex-role
By 3 yrs. old, children already behave By in ways that indicate whether they are boys or girls Differ in ways they play (rough-tumble vs. Differ nurturing), which toys they play with, & with whom they play with with Gender segregation: girls play with girls girls and boys play with boys and How do children acquire their sex-role identity? identity? Five views of identity development: Psychodynamic Social Learning Cognitive-Developmental Gender Schema Cultural Cultural Psychodynamic View (Freud) Psychodynamic Children at this age are in the phallic Children stage of development (become stage capable of deriving pleasure from genitals) genitals) Oedipus complex: in boys: the fear, in guilt, & conflict evoked by desire to get rid of father for mother’s affections Drives them to identify with fathers instead instead Electra complex: in girls: blaming mother for “castrated” condition, transfer love to father, & compete for his affections his Overcomes fear & guilt by Overcomes repressing feelings for father & identifying with mother identifying Critiques of this theory: Critiques Freud’s belief that females are somehow Freud’s underdeveloped underdeveloped More to sex-role identification than More identifying with same-sex parent identifying Social Learning View Social Emphasizes process of modeling, in which Emphasizes modeling in children observe & imitate individuals of the same sex as themselves the Differential reinforcement: girls & boys girls rewarded for engaging in genderrewarded appropriate behavior Learn that adults reward boys & girls for Learn different kinds of behavior so will choose to engage in sex-appropriate behaviors that lead to rewards (e.g., playing sports) that Peers, siblings, & other adults also help children understand their gender role (not just parents) role Study by Rust et al. (2000) Longitudinal study of 5000 preschoolers Found that boys with older brothers & girls Found with older sisters showed the greatest amount of sex-typed behavior (behaviors characteristics of one’s gender) characteristics Boys with older sisters & girls with older Boys brothers were the least sex-typed brothers Cognitive-Developmental View (Kohlberg) (Kohlberg) Children’s gender-role concepts are Children’s a result of their active structuring of active their own experience I.e., not a passive experience Sex-role development stages: Sex-role identity: able to label able themselves a boy or girl by age 3 themselves Sex-role stability: during early during childhood, understand sex roles are stable (boys grow up to be stable men, girls grow up to be women) men, Sex-role constancy: understanding understanding that their sex remains the same no matter what the situation matter Gender Schema View Gender Includes features of both social-learning & Includes cognitive developmental theories cognitive Gender schema: mental model containing information about males & females that is used to process gender-relevant information information
E.g., what types of toys, clothing, activities, & E.g., interests are “male” or “female” interests Gender schemas can be used for events as Gender well (e.g., “mommy shops for groceries”, “daddy barbecues”) “daddy Uses an information-processing, rather than Uses stage, approach stage, Cultural View Cultural Cultural expectations, beliefs, & values Cultural regarding gender infuse children’s daily lives Affects everything from objects they play Affects with, activities in which they engage, & people with whom they interact people E.g., Western culture---male stereotype is E.g., defined more clearly & rigidly than female stereotype stereotype
Generally accepting of girls engaging in male Generally like behaviors but intolerant of the reverse like Ethnic Identity Ethnic
Sense of belonging to an ethnic group, Sense and the feelings & attitudes that accompany sense of group membership (Phinney) membership Researchers have explored the different Researchers kinds of feelings & attitudes associated with ethnic identity & possible effects on self-esteem self-esteem Clark (1939, 1950) research on ethnic identity identity Asked African American & European Asked American children their preference between pairs of dolls between African American children of all ages African seemed to prefer the white dolls (“white bias”) bias”) Led psychologists to conclude that African Led American children define themselves entirely in terms of the majority group, thereby denying importance of their own families & communities in shaping their identities identities Further studies found similar results across other ethnic groups (e.g., Native Americans) Americans) However, not a reason to believe that However, not these children have acquired a negative ethnic self-concept negative More likely that results are a reflection More of a desire for power & wealth of the majority group (Beuf) majority How do parents communicate with children about issues of ethnicity? children Ethnic socialization: ethnic-related ethnic-related messages communicated to children messages Categories include: Cultural socialization: emphasizes heritage emphasizes & pride pride Preparation for bias: stresses stresses discrimination & prejudice discrimination Promotion of racial mistrust: encourages encourages mistrust of majority group mistrust Egalitarianism: emphasizes equality of all emphasizes ethnicities ethnicities Study by Caughy et al. Study Differences in form of ethnic socialization Differences have implications for children’s cognitive abilities & behavioral adjustment abilities Parents who promoted ethnic pride & a Parents home rich in African American culture had children with stronger cognitive abilities, problem-solving skills, & fewer behavioral problems problems ...
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