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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
Ch. 9 Social & Emotional Ch. Development in Early Childhood Childhood 10/27/10 Outline Outline
Developing Moral Reasoning Developing Self-Regulation Self-regulation & Play Regulating Emotions Development of Aggression Causes Causes Aggression Developing Moral Reasoning Developing
Children’s ideas about ‘good’ & ‘bad’ Children’s come primarily from ways in which significant people in their lives (e.g., parents) respond to their behavior parents) Psychodynamic View Psychodynamic
Sense of right & wrong come from Sense internalizing moral standards from our parents (esp. same-sex parent) parents Three mental structures present in Three early childhood: early Id: operates on pleasure principle; unconscious, impulsive unconscious, Ego: reality principle; mediates demands of the id & the social world of Superego: develops around age 5; the ‘conscience’ ‘conscience’ Cognitive-Developmental View Cognitive-Developmental
When young children reason about When moral issues, tend to focus on objective consequences objective E.g., how much damage is done or whether E.g., someone gets caught someone Heteronomous morality (Piaget): morality defined in terms of externally imposed controls & objective consequences consequences Social Domain View Social
Moral rules: based on fairness & welfare of based others others E.g., hitting or pushing others Social conventions: important for important coordinating behavior in a society coordinating E.g., talking back to the teacher; wearing PJs to E.g., school school Personal sphere: based on personal based preferences preferences E.g., not brushing teeth Studies suggest that 3 & 4 year olds are able Studies to distinguish among moral, social, & personal rules personal Developing Self-Regulation Developing
Self-regulation: ability to control one’s ability thoughts, emotions, & behaviors thoughts, Young children rely heavily on others for Young assistance with regulation assistance Ex: being soothed when they cry; Ex: monitoring of their emotional expressions (“no hitting!”) (“no Self-Regulation & Play Self-Regulation
Children begin engaging in more Children complex types of play during early childhood childhood Sociodramatic play: make-believe play in make-believe which two or more participants enact social roles (e.g., playing house or school) social Children who engage in a lot of Children sociodramatic play tend to show higher levels of self-regulation levels Regulating Emotions Regulating
Between 2-6 yrs of age, children develop Between strategies to help them keep their emotions under control under Avoid emotional situations by covering ears, Avoid turning away, or closing their eyes turning Use developing language skills to help: Reinterpret events (“I didn’t want to play with her Reinterpret anyways b/c she’s mean”) anyways Reassure themselves (“Mommy’s coming back”) Encourage themselves (“I’m a big girl now, I can Encourage do this”) do Socioemotional competence: ability to Socioemotional ability behave appropriately in social situations that evoke strong emotions situations E.g., Ability to read emotions of others & E.g., to control their own emotional expressions to Preschool children who show Preschool socioemotional competence tend to be better liked by both peers & teachers better Aggression Aggression
Learning to control aggression is one Learning of the most basic tasks of social development development Hostile aggression: Intention to injure the victim, physically or Intention otherwise otherwise Directed at achieving a goal; e.g., Directed threatening another child in order to gain peer approval peer Instrumental aggression: Up to about 18 mos., teasing & physical aggression occur with equal frequency aggression Around 2 yrs., see an increase in amount of teasing rather than physical rather harm harm Particular form of aggression taken Particular often depends on what may be occurring in specific dev. domains occurring E.g., as cognitive & lang. skills develop, E.g., become more capable of teasing become Boys are typically more aggressive than girls (similar findings across the world) world) More likely than girls to hit, push, hurl More insults, & threaten to beat up other kids insults, Girls of preschool- and school-age Girls more likely to engage in relational aggression aggression Indirect aggression intended to harm Indirect someone’s friendships or exclude an individual from the group individual Causes of Aggression Causes
Biological contributions Based on evolutionary & physiological Based factors factors Darwin: individuals are in competition with each other for survival; evolution will favor those who are more competitive & selfish those Aggression is natural & necessary Physiologically, presence of testosterone Physiologically, may increase activity level for boys may Social & Cultural Contributions Social People learn to behave aggressively from People family, peer groups, & culture family, Children learn aggression by imitating Children aggressive behaviors of others or because they are being rewarded for aggressive behavior (e.g., victim gives in or they’re paid more attention to) paid Emotional & Cognitive Contributions Emotional Focus is on how children feel & think Focus about social situations that might provoke aggressive responses aggressive Young children’s aggressive tendencies Young are influenced by their understanding of their own and others’ emotions, goals, & behaviors behaviors More advanced their understanding of More emotions is, less likely they’ll behave aggressively aggressively Children who have a more advanced understanding of emotions (including what causes them & how they are expressed) will be less likely to behave aggressively aggressively E.g., if a child is playing with a toy & E.g., another child takes it away, he may abstain from acting out aggressively if has internalized the “no hitting” rule of the classroom & knows that violating the rule will result in him getting in trouble will Spanking Controversy
p. 329 p. 70-90% of parents in the US report spanking 70-90% their children at least occasionally their 75% of college-educated mothers spank their 75% toddlers an average of 2.5x per week toddlers 23 states currently permit spanking in public 23 schools schools Majority of parents resort to spanking only Majority after other disciplinary measure (e.g., timeafter out) fail to work Question of whether spanking causes psychological and emotional damage psychological Generally discouraged by Generally developmentalists developmentalists Studies have linked physical discipline Studies to increased aggression & low selfto esteem in children & adolescents Other findings: abusive parents more Other likely to spank than nonabusive parents parents Other studies suggest that physical discipline does not inevitably place children at risk for later problems children Consequences of spanking depend on Consequences other aspects of parenting: other Negative effects of spanking are more Negative pronounced when parents provide low levels of emotional support levels When parents provide high levels of When warmth & emotional support, negative effects disappear effects Majority of research & professionals suggest parents seek alternatives to spanking spanking American Academy of Pediatrics: the American practice of spanking is harmful to both children & parents children ...
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