Lecture_111010 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology CH. 11 Middle...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology CH. 11 Middle Childhood: Physical & Cognitive Physical Development Development 11/10/10 Outline Outline CH. 11 Middle Childhood Physical Development Patterns of Growth Height & Weight Motor Development Conservation Classification Planning Concrete Operational Development (Piaget) Information-Processing Approach to Information-Processing Cognition Cognition Role of Memory Increased Control of Attention Middle Childhood Middle Period between 6-12 years of age What changes for children during this What period? period? More time in school Increased peer interactions Greater autonomy Greater Increased responsibilities Higher expectations placed on them by Higher adults adults Physical Development Physical Patterns of Growth By 6 years of age: approx. 45 inches tall & By weigh 45 pounds weigh Increase in muscle mass contributes to increased strength (both boys & girls) increased By age 7 (girls) & age 8 (boys): gradual By increase in fat tissue increase Contributes to body’s changing appearance Contributes Height Height Growth dependent on interaction of Growth environmental & genetic factors environmental Nutrition continues to play key environmental role in moderating genetic growth potential growth Poor children usually smaller than children Poor of same age in wealthier families Less access to nutritious food & good health care health Height (cont.) Height Study on children in South Korea whose Study families sought refuge from North Korea (chronic food shortage) (chronic By the age of 14: By Boys from N. Korea approx. 6 inches shorter than S. Korean peers shorter Girls approx. 3 inches shorter than S. Girls Korean peers Korean Height (cont.) Height Overall health also contributes to growth During even a mild illness, growth slows During down down If children are adequately nourished, slowdown typically followed by period of rapid down “catch-up growth” “catch-up However, nutritional deficiencies may However, result in stunted growth result Weight Weight Weight (like height) influenced by genetic Weight factors; yet environmental factors (i.e., availability of food) also play a role availability E.g., number of calories consumed in E.g., average day can impact long-term growth average Consuming as little as 50 extra calories Consuming per day can lead to excess weight gain of 5 pounds over course of a year pounds Weight (cont.) Weight Many researchers believe obesity can be Many diagnosed earlier by using the Body Mass Index (BMI), ratio of weight to height Index BMI: multiply weight by 705, and divide by BMI: height twice height When BMI falls between 85th & 95th percentile, considered at risk for obesity; percentile, Approx. 15% of 6-11 year old children Approx. fall into this category fall Motor Development Motor Increases in motor development for Increases children that occur over the course of middle childhood: middle Improved balance Run faster Throw balls farther & with greater Throw efficiency efficiency Learn to ride bikes, dance, swim, climb Learn trees, etc. trees, Motor Development Motor Gender differences in motor skills Boys typically more advanced in motor Boys abilities that require power & force power E.g., Batting, kicking, dribbling, & catching E.g., balls balls Girls often excel in fine motors skills (e.g., Girls drawing & writing) & in gross motor skills drawing that combine balance & foot movement that (e.g., gymnastics) (e.g., Motor Development Motor Cultural conceptions of gender appropriate activities help shape differences in behaviors differences E.g., valuing ability to throw, catch, & E.g., hit a baseball for boys in the American culture culture Being highly involved in sports (boys & boys girls) more likely to result in higher girls more self-esteem, sense of belonging at school, & lower levels of depression school, Concrete-Operational Development (Piaget) Development 3rd stage of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development development Concrete operations: children begin to children engage in mental operations engage Allows them mentally to combine, Allows separate, order, & transform objects and actions actions Thinking becomes more organized & Thinking flexible flexible Concrete Operational Development (Piaget) Development Characteristics of this stage: Decentration (can notice more than one attribute of an object at a time) attribute Declining egocentrism Conservation Classification Planning Conservation Conservation Understanding that some properties of an Understanding object remain the same even when its appearance is altered in some superficial way way Famous study on conservation of volume Famous conservation Understanding that amount of liquid in a Understanding container remains the same even though it’s poured into a differently shaped flask shaped Experimenter pours contents of one of the Experimenter beakers into another that is taller & narrower narrower Asks children: “Does the new beaker Asks contain more liquid, the same amount, or less?” less?” 3- & 4-year old children say it contains 3more (“there’s more because it’s higher”) more Around 8 yrs. of age, children understand Around amount is still the same “Nothing was added” “The liquid is higher, but the glass is thinner” “If you pour it back, you’ll see that it’s the If same” same” Classification Classification Ability to understand hierarchical structure Ability of categories of E.g., subclass of cats is included in class E.g., of mammals of Also ability to categorize objects Also according to multiple criteria according E.g., categorize stamp collection E.g., according to year, denomination, or picture depicted picture Planning Planning Begin to form cognitive representations of Begin actions needed to achieve a specific goal actions To make a plan, have to keep in mind: What is presently happening What they want to happen in the future What they need to do in order to get from the What present to the future present Planning (cont.) Planning Also important for reasoning tasks Games that require children to solve Games logical problems (e.g., Checkers) become popular during this period become Limitations of Concrete Operations Limitations Flexibility in thinking & ability to think Flexibility logically in new situations is best when dealing with concrete objects & events they have experience with they Children at this stage still struggle with Children ability to reason about abstract situations with which they have no direct experience Information-Processing Approach Approach Cognitive changes during middle Cognitive childhood explained by processes such as increased memory capacity, more rapid mental operations, & acquisition of variety of mental strategies strategies Role of Memory Role Increased speed & capacity of working Increased memory (short-term memory) memory “Active” memory system that holds & Active” manipulates information needed to reason about complex tasks & problems about Measured using memory span, # of Measured random items or digits that can be repeated immediately after they’re presented presented Most 4- & 5-year-olds can recall about 4 Most digits presented one after another digits 9 & 10 year olds can recall about 6 items 10 Adults can remember about 7 Adults Role of Memory (cont.) Role Expanded knowledge base Older children likely to have greater Older knowledge about a given topic simply because they have accumulated more experience experience Role of Memory (cont.) Role Improved memory strategies Deliberate use of actions to enhance Deliberate remembering remembering Significant increase in the spontaneous Significant use of memory strategies between early & middle childhood middle Rehearsal: repeating to oneself material to repeating be memorized (ex: word list, phone #) be Organizational strategies: mentally mentally grouping things to be remembered in clusters of closely associated items Ex: animals (“cat”, “dog”), foods (“cereal”, “milk”), geometric figures (“triangle”, “square”, “circle”) “circle”) Elaboration: make up connection between make two or more things that need to be remembered remembered Ex: the words ‘tomato’ & ‘street’; imagining a Ex: tomato squashed in the middle of the street tomato Increased Control of Attention Increased During middle childhood, children During become better able to regulate attention, stay focused on relevant aspects of task, & ignore irrelevant distractions distractions ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor J.mojica during the Fall '10 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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