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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
CH. 11 Phys. & Cognitive Development in CH. Middle Childhood (cont.) Middle CH. 13 Social & Emotional Development in CH. Middle Childhood Middle 11/15/10 Outline Outline
Ch. 11 Physical & Cognitive Ch. Development in Middle Childhood (cont.) (cont.) Individual Differences in Cognitive Individual Development Development Measuring Intelligence Moral Reasoning Ch. 13 Social & Emotional Development What does it mean to be intelligent? intelligent?
Answer depends on who you ask & when! Sir Francis Galton, 1800s, Sir anthropologist/geographer anthropologist/geographer Most intelligent people are those with the best Most sensory abilities sensory Components of intelligence include reasoning, Components judgment, memory, & power of abstraction judgment, Binet responsible for origins of one of the first Binet measures of intelligence measures Alfred Binet, 1800s, psychologist Lev Vygotsky, Russian psychologist, 1930s 1930s Believed intellectual abilities were social in Believed origin; zone of proximal development origin; Robert Sternberg, US psychologist, Robert 1970s 1970s Polled regular people & psychologists Intelligent people reason well, read a lot, Intelligent display common sense, keep an open mind, read with high comprehension; intelligence can’t necessarily be tested intelligence Howard Gardner, 1970s/1980s Howard Idea of multiple intelligences (not Idea measured by a test) measured Competencies in linguistic abilities, music Competencies abilities, mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal kinesthetic, Modern views Intelligence is multifaceted Emphasis on innate & developmental Emphasis influences influences Heredity may set limits on potential but the Heredity environment may permit potential to be actualized actualized Cultural perspectives on intelligence Cultural Asian & African cultures: Defined in terms of social skills (e.g., Defined cooperation & obedience) cooperation Based mostly on cognitive skills European & North American cultures: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence
Mental age divided by chronological Mental age (Stern) age Mental age: age level at which you Mental perform cognitive tasks (e.g., performing as well on a test as a 7performing year-old = MA of 7) Chronological age = actual age MA / CA * 100 = IQ 85 to 115 = range in which 68% of the 85 population falls population IQ Tests IQ
Typical IQ test contains a large set of Typical test items which come from different areas of cognition areas E.g., read and comprehend, numerical E.g., computations, memory, general knowledge computations, All of the items are scored, then a All formula is used to compute an overall IQ score IQ IQ Tests (cont.) IQ
Stanford-Binet Stanford-Binet Children & adults; use different forms Children depending on age depending Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Wechsler Children (WISC) Children Children between 6-16 years of age Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Wechsler (WAIS) (WAIS) Individuals 16 years of age & older IQ Scores IQ
E.g., WISC-IV 130 Very superior 120-129 Superior 110-119 High Average 90-109 Average 80-89 Low Average 70-79 Borderline <69 Extremely Low How to interpret group differences in IQ scores? differences
Old view: due to genetic differences Old (could affect how brain develops and how we perform on IQ tests) how Cultural/environmental view: cultural Cultural/environmental experiences influence how you perform on IQ tests on Culturally-biased tests Family background (access to resources, Family educational success, etc.) educational Other Considerations Other
Flynn Effect Steady increase in IQ test performance Steady since testing began over 100 years ago since 10-20 point increase for every generation Why?
Possible explanations range from improved Possible nutrition, increasing years of education, increasing complexity of life, spread of interactive video games, etc. interactive Social & Emotional Development in Middle Childhood in
Moral Development Becomes based on internalized, personal Becomes sense of right & wrong (vs. external sense rewards & punishments, as in early childhood) childhood) Freud: development of the superego, part superego part of our personality which decides if our actions are morally appropriate actions Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Development
Autonomous Morality Right & wrong are defined according to Right person’s internal motives and intentions person’s Why the shift from heteronomous (based Why on objective consequences) to autonomous moral reasoning (reasoning for themselves)? for Piaget: Takes place in the context of peer Takes activities, esp. playing rule-based games playing Rule-based games: Rule-based Games are a model of society Rules must be agreed upon by the players Rules & can be modified if everyone agrees to it; rational aspect rational Provides an existing structure of rules Provides about how to behave in specific social circumstances circumstances Must subordinate immediate desires & Must behavior to socially-agreed-upon system behavior Children come to understand that social Children rules make cooperation with others possible possible Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Development
Six stages of moral reasoning Six (childhood through adolescence) (childhood Stages characterized by ideas about Stages what is right & reasons for doing right what Presented children with stories about Presented people faced with dilemmas involving the value of human life & property, people’s obligations to each other, & the meaning of laws and rules the Heinz Dilemma (p. 463) Heinz “In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. In One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together only about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying & asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. The husband got desperate & broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?” wife. Stage 1, Heteronomous Morality Stage Beginning of middle childhood (6-7 yrs.) What is right or wrong for them must be What right or wrong for others (egocentric) right Rightness & wrongness based on Rightness objective consequences objective Children at this stage will assert that Heinz Children must NOT steal the medicine b/c he will go to jail to Stage 2, Instrumental Morality Stage Reached around 7-8 yrs. of age Now realize that different people have Now different perspectives from their own different Assume that what serve’s one’s own Assume interests is moral interests Heinz dilemma: Heinz should steal the Heinz drug b/c someday he might have cancer & would want someone to steal it for him would Stage 3, Good-Child Morality Stage Reached around 10-11 yrs. of age Moral judgments made from the social Moral perspective of relationships with other individuals individuals Belief in the Golden Rule (treat others as Belief you wish to be treated) you Heinz dilemma: relationship with wife is Heinz more important so he did the right thing; his intentions were in the right place his ...
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- Fall '10