Lecture_112210 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch. 13 Social...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology Ch. 13 Social & Emotional Ch. Development in Middle Childhood Development 11/22/10 Outline Outline Ch. 13 Social & Emotional Development Moral Reasoning Peer Relationships Competition & Cooperation Friendships Social & Emotional Development in Middle Childhood in Moral Development Becomes based on internalized, personal Becomes sense of right & wrong (vs. external sense rewards & punishments, as in early childhood) childhood) Freud: development of the superego, part superego part of our personality which decides if our actions are morally appropriate actions Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Development Autonomous Morality Right & wrong are defined according to Right person’s internal motives and intentions person’s Why the shift from heteronomous (based Why on objective consequences) to autonomous moral reasoning (reasoning for themselves)? for Piaget: Takes place in the context of peer Takes activities, esp. playing rule-based games playing Rule-based games: Rule-based Games are a model of society Rules must be agreed upon by the players Rules & can be modified if everyone agrees to it; rational aspect rational Provides an existing structure of rules Provides about how to behave in specific social circumstances circumstances Must subordinate immediate desires & Must behavior to socially-agreed-upon system behavior Children come to understand that social Children rules make cooperation with others possible possible Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Development Six stages of moral reasoning Six (childhood through adolescence) (childhood Stages characterized by ideas about Stages what is right & reasons for doing right what Presented children with stories about Presented people faced with dilemmas involving the value of human life & property, people’s obligations to each other, & the meaning of laws and rules the Heinz Dilemma (p. 463) Heinz “In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. In One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together only about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying & asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. The husband got desperate & broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?” wife. Stage 1, Heteronomous Morality Stage Beginning of middle childhood (6-7 yrs.) What is right or wrong for them must be What right or wrong for others (egocentric) right Rightness & wrongness based on Rightness objective consequences objective Children at this stage will assert that Heinz Children must NOT steal the medicine b/c he will go to jail to Stage 2, Instrumental Morality Stage Reached around 7-8 yrs. of age Now realize that different people have Now different perspectives from their own different Assume that what serve’s one’s own Assume interests is moral interests Heinz dilemma: Heinz should steal the Heinz drug b/c someday he might have cancer & would want someone to steal it for him would Stage 3, Good-Child Morality Stage Reached around 10-11 yrs. of age Moral judgments made from the social Moral perspective of relationships with other individuals individuals Belief in the Golden Rule (treat others as Belief you wish to be treated) you Heinz dilemma: relationship with wife is Heinz more important so he did the right thing; his intentions were in the right place his Peer Relationships Peer Greater appreciation of social rules & Greater decreasing egocentrism helps facilitate developing peer relationships developing Social structure Complex organizations of relationships Complex between individuals between Developmentalists tend to focus on degree Developmentalists of dominance or degree of popularity in dominance children’s social structures children’s Dominance Dominance Focus on who does & does NOT hold Focus power over others power Dominance established through repeated Dominance pattern of fighting & then making up pattern Dominant children: those who control Dominant resources (toys, play spaces, group activities, etc.) activities, Study by Pellegrini & Long (2002) Study Longitudinal study of more than 100 Longitudinal students in 5th-7th grades students Bullying reaches its peak during 6th grade (1st year of middle school) grade when children are trying to establish dominance in new social groups Diminishes in 7th grade when groups have been formed have Girls more likely to engage in relational aggression (actions that threaten aggression relationships & social standings of peers) peers) E.g., making mean or derogatory E.g., comments, spreading rumors, or gossiping Study by Crick et al. (2007) Study Relational aggression peaks during 6th & 7th grades Used to raise one’s status among peers Popularity: Who is liked or disliked Popularity: Four main popularity statuses have been Four popularity established based on research on social status established Popular children Receive the highest rankings from peers Rated as more physically attractive More skilled at initiating & maintaining positive More relationships relationships Rejected children Receive few positive nominations or low Receive rankings rankings Most common reason for rejection is Most aggressive behavior; overestimate their social skills & underestimate how much their peers like them like Higher levels of delinquency, substance abuse, Higher & psychological disturbances psychological Neglected children Receive few nominations Ignored rather than disliked Less sociable than peers but neither Less aggressive nor overly shy aggressive Perform better academically than rejected Perform children; better liked by teachers children; Controversial children Receive both positive & negative nominations Behave even more aggressively than rejected Behave children but compensate for their aggression by joking about it or using social skills to prevent peers from breaking off relationship prevent Competition & Cooperation Competition Muzafer & Sherif study (1956) Role of context in fostering cooperation & Role competition in children’s social groups competition 11-year-old boys divided into 2 groups & 11-year-old brought to two separate summer camps in Oklahoma Oklahoma Within each group, cooperation was Within encouraged by having them encounter problems that could only be solved by working together (e.g., preparing dinner) working Each group adopted a name (Rattlers & Each Rattlers Eagles) Eagles) Two groups brought together to Two compete against one another (e.g., tugcompete of-war) Hostility escalated as competition grew Hostility more intense (one group burned the other’s flag) other’s Possible to reverse competition & Possible foster cooperation? foster Experimenters introduced series of problems requiring cooperation between the groups between E.g., food delivery truck got “stuck” in E.g., the mud; boys came up with idea of using tug-of-war rope to pull the truck out out After coming together to solve several After problems, hostility was replaced by mutual respect & intergroup friendships friendships Education in Western culture tends to encourage competition over cooperation cooperation E.g., honor roll, public praise, E.g., displaying top papers & tests, etc. displaying To bolster cooperation, recent efforts To have been made to utilize cooperative learning programs learning I.e., foster children’s appreciation for I.e., their peers’ successes as well as their own Bullying Bullying Unprovoked aggression intended to Unprovoked harm, intimidate, and/or dominate harm, Physical bullying – pushing, hitting, Physical etc. etc. Verbal bullying – teasing, name-calling, Verbal etc. etc. Access to cell phones, email, & social Access networking provides whole new context for bullying as well (cyber bullying) bullying) Developmentalists consider bullying a form of proactive aggression (means of proactive controlling people & getting one’s way) controlling Boys more likely to report bullying than Boys girls girls Reported more often in rural Reported communities (vs. urban or suburban areas) areas) Reports of bullying highest among 6th graders graders Research suggests that early elementary school years (along with transitional period) are a great time to introduce prevention measures to help children recognize & respond to bullying behaviors bullying Suggestion that schools come up with Suggestion ways to foster more varied & closer peer relationships peer Friendships Friendships Children with best friends tend to score Children higher on measures of self-esteem & positive feelings of self-worth positive Children without best friends tend to be Children more timid, overly sensitive, & at risk for later psychological problems for Developmental functions of friendships Developmental Provides contexts in which to develop Provides basic social skills (e.g., communication, conflict resolution) conflict Gain information about self, others, & the Gain world world Companionship & fun that relieve the Companionship stress of everyday life stress Models of intimate relationships (caring, Models trust, & helping) trust, Making Friends Making Tendency to pick friends who are similar Tendency to themselves in age, ethnicity, sex, SES, & general skill level general Friends will likely mirror their own feelings Friends about school and have the same interests about Influences on friendship formation: Common-ground activity Clear communication Exchange of information Resolution of conflicts Reciprocity Keeping Friends Keeping Key characteristic of lasting relationship is Key degree to which two friends are similar to one another at start of their friendship one E.g., sharing similar behavioral characteristics E.g., (even shyness!) (even Similarity promotes equality in the Similarity relationship, positive reinforcement, cooperative interactions, all of which are associated with friendship stability associated Cognitive-Developmental Approach Approach Children are developing a more Children sophisticated understanding of their friendships and the unique needs, motives, & goals of their friends motives, This is a consequence of higher levels This of perspective taking & declining egocentrism egocentrism Development of perspective taking influences: influences: Friendship understanding – developing knowledge of the nature of friendship knowledge Preschooler : “A friend is someone who Preschooler gives me toys.” gives Elementary school years: “A friend is Elementary someone who always does what you want.” want.” Children will eventually learn to balance Children different perspectives to ensure both personal autonomy & intimacy in relationships relationships Friendship skills – action strategies Friendship children use in developing their relationships relationships Preschoolers: more impulsive; focus on Preschoolers: getting needs met immediately (grabbing a toy away from another child) toy Older children: learning importance of Older taking turns & compromising taking Friendship valuing – ability to make a Friendship personal commitment to a relationship and be emotionally invested & motivated to maintain it motivated Older child (later middle childhood years): Older more likely to consider their actions in light of their relationships & needs of their friend, i.e., trying to avoid hurting a friend’s feelings friend’s ...
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