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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 Child Psychology Child
CH. 13 Social & Emotional CH. Development in Middle Childhood Development 11/24/10 Outline Outline
Ch. 13 Social & Emotional Development Ch. (cont.) (cont.) Friendships Influence of Parents Sense of Self Friendships Friendships
Children with best friends tend to score Children higher on measures of self-esteem & positive feelings of self-worth positive Children without best friends tend to be Children more timid, overly sensitive, & at risk for later psychological problems for Developmental functions of friendships Developmental Provides contexts in which to develop Provides basic social skills (e.g., communication, conflict resolution) conflict Gain information about self, others, & the Gain world world Companionship & fun that relieve the Companionship stress of everyday life stress Models of intimate relationships (caring, Models trust, & helping) trust, Making Friends Making Tendency to pick friends who are similar Tendency to themselves in age, ethnicity, sex, SES, & general skill level general Friends will likely mirror their own feelings Friends about school and have the same interests about Influences on friendship formation: Common-ground activity Clear communication – listen to each other & request clarification as needed other Exchange of information – asking & Exchange providing relevant information providing Resolution of conflicts – quickly Resolution resolving conflicts & having good reasons for disagreeing reasons Reciprocity – responding to positive Reciprocity behaviors with positive contributions of their own their Keeping Friends Keeping Key characteristic of lasting relationship is Key degree to which two friends are similar to one another at start of their friendship one
E.g., sharing similar behavioral characteristics E.g., (even shyness!) (even Similarity promotes equality in the Similarity relationship, positive reinforcement, cooperative interactions, all of which are cooperative all associated with friendship stability associated Cognitive-Developmental Approach Approach
Children are developing a more Children sophisticated understanding of their friendships and the unique needs, motives, & goals of their friends motives, Consequence of higher levels of Consequence perspective taking & declining egocentrism egocentrism What develops as a result of increased perspective taking: perspective Friendship understanding – developing knowledge of the nature of friendship knowledge Preschooler : “A friend is someone who Preschooler gives me toys.” gives Elementary school years: “A friend is Elementary someone who always does what you want.” want.” Children will eventually learn to balance Children different perspectives to ensure both personal autonomy & intimacy in relationships relationships Friendship skills – action strategies Friendship children use in developing their relationships relationships Preschoolers: more impulsive; focus on Preschoolers: getting needs met immediately (grabbing a toy away from another child) toy Older children: learning importance of Older taking turns & compromising taking Friendship valuing – ability to make a Friendship personal commitment to a relationship and be emotionally invested & motivated to maintain it motivated Older child (late middle childhood years): Older more likely to consider their actions in light of their relationships & needs of their friends I.e., trying to avoid hurting a friend’s I.e., feelings feelings In middle childhood, children become more capable of managing friendships more E.g., use of social repair mechanisms E.g., social Strategies that allow friends to remain Strategies friends even when serious differences temporarily drive them apart temporarily Ex: negotiating, disengaging before a Ex: disagreement escalates into a fight, etc. disagreement Using these strategies increases the Using chances that children will remain friends when conflict is over when Influence of Parents Influence
Changing Expectations Parents expect children to behave Parents themselves & perform appropriately themselves Children less likely to use coercive Children behaviors (whining, yelling, hitting) to get what they want what Instead, use reasoning to argue & point Instead, out parents’ inconsistencies out What age do parents expect children to display behavioral competencies (e.g., emotional maturity, compliance, politeness, assertiveness, etc.)? politeness, Goodnow et al. (1984) study on cultural Goodnow variations: variations: Survey of Japanese, American, Australian, Survey & Lebanese-born Australian mothers Findings: Findings: Japanese mothers expect to see emotional Japanese maturity, compliance, & politeness at earlier age than mothers in other groups earlier American & Australian mothers expect American their children’s social skills & verbal expressiveness to develop at earlier age than other groups than Lebanese Australian mothers most willing Lebanese to let behavioral competencies develop in their own good time (i.e., whenever they’re ready) ready) Targets of parental expectations & attention are also often reflections of cultural values: cultural School achievement is a high priority for children living in economically developed countries countries For children living in less developed For countries, focus more likely to be on children’s ability to take care of younger siblings & help sustain the family financially (e.g., care for livestock or tend financially to farm) to Divorce Divorce 40-50% of marriages in the US end in 40-50% divorce which affects more than 1 million children children Divorce rate is also on the rise in Asian & Divorce Eastern European countries Eastern Problems associated with divorce: Children of divorced parents twice as Children likely to have problems in school, to act out, to be depressed and unhappy, have lower self-esteem, etc. lower Divorce (cont.) Divorce Problems associated with divorce do not Problems not necessarily begin with the divorce itself itself Selection perspective model Negative effects of family disruption Negative might be accounted for by problems that predated the divorce predated Longitudinal studies have found that Longitudinal dysfunctional family patterns & characteristics of the parents (e.g., antisocial personality traits) may create unhealthy environments which contribute to adjustment problems contribute How children adjust to divorce may depend on several factors Active coping skills facilitate adjustment: Seeking social support Support from peers Access to therapeutic interventions Access (e.g., school-based support programs) (e.g., Factors that impede adjustment: Avoidant coping mechanisms Tendency to self-blame Feelings of lack of control Sense of Self Sense
How do children’s conceptions of How themselves change as they grow older? older? Damon & Hart study (1988), p. 488 Asked children 4-15 yrs. of age to describe Asked themselves themselves Found that all children referred to their Found appearance, their activities, relations to others, psychological characteristics others, Damon & Hart study (cont.) Damon Comparative judgments become more Comparative frequent between 8-11 yrs. of age frequent EX: “I’m bigger than most kids”, “I’m not EX: as smart as most kids”, “I’m one of the best players on my baseball team” best Children now engaging in social Children comparison – defining oneself in relation comparison to one’s peers to Result of spending more time with peers Result & greater ability to understand others’ points of view points Around 7 or 8 yrs. of age, children also begin to describe themselves in terms of more general, stable traits more Instead of saying “I can kick a ball far,” Instead “I they will start to say “I am a good athlete” “I Beginning to assume that other people Beginning also have stable traits; will use this information to anticipate behaviors & psychological states of others psychological Self-Esteem Self-Esteem
One’s evaluation of one’s own selfworth Erikson – Industry vs. Inferiority crisis Erikson Industry in middle childhood in If children judge themselves as being If capable of meeting challenges imposed on them by adults & at school, then they will maintain positive self-esteem maintain However, if they feel inferior, their selfesteem will suffer as a result Findings of Susan Harter’s research on self-esteem & children: self-esteem High self-esteem in childhood linked to High satisfaction & happiness in later life satisfaction Low self-esteem linked to depression, Low anxiety, and maladjustment both in school & in social relations in Three parental characteristics combine to produce high self-esteem in late middle childhood (Coopersmith, 1967): middle 1) Parents’ acceptance of their children
Close, affectionate relationship; children Close, appreciate mothers’ approval & come to view her as supportive her 2) Parents’ setting of clearly defined limits
Enforcement of strict limits on children's Enforcement activities activities 3) Parents’ respect for individuality
Children with high self-esteem allowed a great Children deal of individual self-expression; parents show respect by considering child’s point of view view ...
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