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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology
CH. 14 Physical & Cognitive CH. Development in Adolescents Development 11/29/10 Outline Outline
CH. 14 Physical & Cognitive CH. Development in Adolescence Development Adolescents & Society Biological Theories of Development Puberty Adolescents & Society Adolescents
Changes occurring in adolescence: Dramatic physical development, including Dramatic reproductive maturity reproductive Increased freedom & responsibilities Increased cognitive & intellectual Increased functioning functioning Social changes Changes in relationships Learning to manage the transition from Learning childhood to adulthood childhood Historical Views on Transitional Period of Adolescence of 350 B.C. : Plato (Greek philosopher) 350 warned about dangers of youth & alcohol warned Advocated minimum drinking age Literature from the Middle Ages Depict young people as passionate, Depict sensual, & impulsive sensual, Other examples: Chaucer’s Canterbury Other Tales; Shakespeare’s Romeo & Juliet Tales Shakespeare’s Romeo Industrial Age Industrial Late 18th & 19th centuries Public interest in adolescence grew as a Public result of two trends: result Increased urbanization: greater number of greater young people moved to the cities to work young
Adolescent drinking, sexual promiscuity, & Adolescent card-playing became social problems card-playing Efforts made to provide organized services & Efforts activities to occupy leisure time activities E.g., Hull House of Chicago provided widerange of services to youth with problems Demand for educated workers Demand Increased education to prepare for Increased increasing number of jobs increasing High school attendance increased by over High 700% between 1890 and 1918 700% Educators faced with need to develop Educators innovative teaching methods to address advanced mental capacities of adolescents advanced Biological Theories of Adolescent Development Adolescent
G. Stanley Hall 1st President of the American Psychological Association & major figure in developmental psychology in Must understand unique qualities of Must adolescents in order to understand how to properly educate & counsel them properly G. Stanley Hall (cont.) G. Adolescence is a time of heightened Adolescence emotionality; highs & lows (incl. depressions); “raging hormones” associated with stress of puberty associated Stage of adolescence is consequence of Stage evolutionary process evolutionary
Stages correspond to the evolutionary steps of Stages the species: primitive, animal-like stage of infancy to civilized, maturity of adults infancy Belief that period of adolescence is more Belief flexible & creative than any other period of development development Sigmund Freud Sigmund Adolescence is beginning of genital stage: Adolescence genital final stage in theory of psychosexual development; characterized by increase in sexual desires sexual Struggle between 3 personality structures
Id, ego, & superego Id has increased power & thus, upsets Id psychological balance achieved in middle childhood childhood Increase in psychological conflict & erratic Increase behavior behavior Modern Theories (Evolutionary theorists) theorists) Focus is on growth spurt : rapid change in Focus growth height & weight that marks the onset of puberty puberty Slow rate of growth of humans compared Slow to other primate species to Delayed maturation of humans contributes Delayed to our reproductive success to Humans have increased time to cultivate Humans language, problem solving, & utilize tools in our culture in Puberty Puberty
Series of biological developments that Series transform individuals from a state of immaturity into one in which they are biologically mature & capable of sexual biologically reproduction reproduction Generally takes 3-4 years to complete Begins with chemical signal from the Begins hypothalamus which tells pituitary gland to make more growth hormones gland Growth spurt Growth Onset of growth spurt is one of the first Onset visible signs of puberty visible Teens will grow more quickly during this Teens period than any other time since they were babies babies 45% of skeletal growth takes place & up to 45% 37% of total bone mass may be accumulated accumulated Boys can grow as much as 9 inches taller; Boys girls, as much as 6 to 7 inches taller girls, 98% of their adult height reached by the 98% end of their growth spurt end Growth spurt (cont.) Growth Changes in overall shape Girls will develop breasts & hips will Girls expand (increase in both muscle tissue & body fat) body Boys see an increase in muscle Boys development & shoulder width along with decrease in body fat with Differences in strength Boys are able to exert more force per Boys ounce of muscle than girls of the same size size Boys develop relatively larger hearts & Boys lungs; able to exercise for longer periods of time periods ...
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