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Lecture_120110 - PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology CH 14...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 350 PSY Child Psychology CH. 14 Physical & Cognitive CH. Development in Adolescence Development 12/1/10 Outline Outline CH. 14 Physical & Cognitive CH. Development in Adolescence (cont.) Development Puberty Growth Spurt Sexual Development Brain Development Puberty & Culture Puberty Puberty Series of biological developments that Series transform individuals from a state of immaturity into one in which they are biologically mature & capable of sexual biologically capable reproduction reproduction Generally takes 3-4 years to complete Begins with chemical signal from the Begins hypothalamus which tells pituitary gland to make more growth hormones gland Growth spurt Growth Onset of growth spurt is one of the first Onset visible signs of puberty visible Teens will grow more quickly during this Teens period than any other time since they were babies babies 45% of skeletal growth takes place & up to 45% 37% of total bone mass may be accumulated accumulated Boys can grow as much as 9 inches taller; Boys girls, as much as 6 to 7 inches taller girls, 98% of their adult height reached by the 98% end of their growth spurt end Growth spurt (cont.) Growth Changes in overall shape Girls will develop breasts & hips will Girls expand (increase in both muscle tissue & body fat) body Boys see an increase in muscle Boys development & shoulder width along with decrease in body fat with Differences in strength Boys are able to exert more force per Boys ounce of muscle than girls of the same size size Boys develop relatively larger hearts & Boys lungs; able to exercise for longer periods of time periods Sexual Development Sexual Primary sex characteristics: development of the Primary reproductive organs reproductive I.e., testes, penis, prostate, & scrotum in males I.e., I.e., Uterus, vagina, & ovaries in females I.e., Reproductive organs enlarge & become Reproductive functionally mature due to actions of hormones (testosterone in males and estrogen in females) estrogen Menarche: first menstrual period; usually occurs about 18 months after the growth spurt has reached its peak has Semenarche: first ejaculation; occurs after prostate begins to produce sperm prostate Secondary sex characteristics: outward Secondary anatomical changes that distinguish males from females from In females: continued growth of breasts with the development of the mammary glands (allows for lactation); appearance of pubic hair of In males: appearance of both pubic hair appearance & facial hair; deepening of the voice; enlargement of the testes enlargement Appears at the same time that Appears reproductive organs are maturing reproductive Brain Development Brain Brain continues to develop during Brain adolescence adolescence MRI studies have been able to pinpoint MRI changes in the frontal lobes of the cerebral complex which are associated with which advanced behaviors & processes including: including: Memory Memory Decision making Decision Reasoning Reasoning Impulse control Impulse Ability to multitask Timing of Puberty Timing Depends on interactions between genetic Depends & environmental factors environmental Calorie intake appears to be a critical Calorie factor: factor: Onset of menstruation associated with certain Onset levels of body fat; may be delayed if calorie intake is insufficient Overweight girls tend to reach puberty earlier than normal weight peers than Lean girls who participate in high levels of Lean physical activity (gymnastics, dancing) tend to reach puberty later reach Timing of puberty (cont.) Timing Other influential environmental factors: Health & nutrition Health Stress & psychological depression Stress Family conflict Secular trend: pattern of decline in Secular average age of puberty observed in industrialized countries 1840s: average age of menarche was 141840s: 15 yrs. 1960s: average age was 12-13 yrs. Speculation that secular trend a Speculation consequence of better nutrition & access to health care access Continued drop in average age now a Continued now concern because of higher levels of body fat in contemporary adolescents Puberty & Health Puberty Nutrition Body’s nutrient needs greater during Body’s adolescence than at any other time, esp. during growth spurt during Average diet of adolescents in the U.S. Average is low in essential vitamins & minerals low and high in fats & sugars high Vitamins & minerals influence Vitamins physiological processes (ex: Vitamin A contributes to the functioning of the immune system) immune Physical Activity Physical High levels of athletic activity associated with less depression, less drug use, better relationships with parents, & higher academic performance (both boys & girls) Girls involved in sports feel confidence in themselves & in their bodies, and show good deal of admiration & respect for each other Puberty & Culture Puberty Girls tend to report having more negative Girls (or mixed) feelings towards puberty than boys boys Emotional tone: sense of well-being vs. Emotional depression & anxiety depression For adolescents in the U.S. : Positive emotional tone increases Positive throughout adolescence for boys but plateaus after early adolescence for girls plateaus Girls tend to feel more self-conscious Girls about their bodies because they are often viewed as sexual objects viewed For girls, the addition of body fat may lead For to distress if they feel their body deviates from the cultural ‘ideal’ from Girls more likely to go on ‘fad diets’, take Girls drugs to suppress appetite, or induce vomiting & take laxatives to avoid gaining weight weight Culture & Timing of Puberty Culture Early maturation: development of sex development characteristics before 8 years of age for girls and 9 years of age for boys girls Early maturation in girls identified as risk Early factor that may contribute to such factor problems as depression, eating disorders, delinquency, suicide attempts, early drug & alcohol use and sexual behavior alcohol Possible explanations: Mismatch between adolescents’ physical Mismatch maturity & social and cognitive maturity maturity Threatens sense of belonging with peers ...
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