Test 1 PwrPts

Test 1 PwrPts - Ch 7: Categorical Logic Categorical...

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Ch 7: Categorical Logic
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Categorical Statements Categorical Propositions state relations among classes of objects. 4 Parts: Quantifier / Subject Term / Copula / Predicate Term All No Some are are not All……. ..cats………. ..are…. ..... mammals.
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Standard Form: All S are P. No S are P. Some S are P. Some S are not P.
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All Members of the NRA are adamant supporters of the right to bear arms.
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Quantifier All Members of the NRA are adamant supporters of the right to bear arms.
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Quantifier Subject Term All Members of the NRA are adamant supporters of the right to bear arms.
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Quantifier Subject Term Copula All Members of the NRA are adamant supporters of the right to bear arms.
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Quantifier Subject Term Copula All Members of the NRA are adamant supporters of the right to bear arms . Predicate Term
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Quantity & Quality Categorical Propositions
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Quantity: All S are P. No S are P. Some S are P. Some S are not P. Universal
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Quantity: All S are P. No S are P. Some S are P. Some S are not P. Universal Particular
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All No Some Every Member of the Category No Member of the Category At Least One Member of the Category
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“Some”
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Some politicians are liars Some politicians are not liars
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Quality: All S are P. No S are P. Negative Some S are P. Some S are not P.
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Quality: All S are P. No S are P. Affirmative Negative Some S are P. Some S are not P.
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All S are P. No S are P. Some S are P. Some S are not P. Universal Affirmative Particular Negative Universal Negative Particular Affirmative
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Universal/Affirmative Proposition: All S are P “All politicians are liars”
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Universal/Negative Proposition: No S are P “No politicians are liars”
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Particular/Affirmative Proposition: Some S are P “Some politicians are liars”
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Particular/Negative Proposition: Some S are not P “Some politicians are not liars”
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Letter Designations (shorthand) : A “All S are P” Universal / Affirmative E “No S are P” Universal / Negative I “Some S are P” Particular / Affirmative O “Some S are not P” Particular / Negative
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A ff I rmo = “I affirm”) (A&I = affir m ative quality) n E g O = “I deny” (E&O = negative quality) Mnemonic Device for Determining Quality:
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Translating ordinary statements into categorical statements allows us to handle them more efficiently which allows us to evaluate validity more easily
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Translating ordinary statements into categorical statements only” & “only if” only” & “only if” = ??? = ??? words preceding the words preceding the predicate predicate term in an A-statement term in an A-statement
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