chm1046 Chapter 14 Slides

chm1046 Chapter 14 Slides - Properties of Acids An acid is...

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1 Properties of Acids •An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions, H + , into water. Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of • Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of hydrogen ions. • Acids have a sour taste. Properties of Bases • A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions, OH , into water. • Red litmus paper turns blue in the presence of hydroxide ions. • Bases have a slippery, soapy feel. • Bases have a bitter taste. Acid/Base Neutralization • When an acid and a base react, water and a salt are produced. • For example: HNO 3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l)
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2 Arrhenius Acids and Bases • Svante Arrhenius proposed the following definitions for acids and bases in 1884 : –An Arrhenius acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions. HCl(aq) Æ H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Arrhenius base is a substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxide ions. NaOH Æ Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Limitations of Arrhenius Theory • Arrhenius acids and bases are restricted to aqueous solutions, and the Arrhenius theory didn’t take into account the basicity of substances like NH 3 , which don’t have OH - groups •In 1923 , a more general definition of acids and bases was proposed. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases •A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a substance that donates a hydrogen ion (H + ) to any other substance. It is a proton donor . Brønsted-Lowry base is a substance that accepts a hydrogen ion. It is a proton acceptor . HCl + H 2 O Æ H 3 O + + Cl - acid base Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) HCl(aq) + NH 3 (aq) NH 4 Cl(aq) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Æ H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Brønsted-Lowry bases have a lone pair of electrons which can bond with the electron-poor H + ion.
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3 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs HA( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + A - (aq) conj conj acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 conjugate base : everything that remains of the acid : everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost. conjugate acid : formed when the proton is transferred to the base. The reaction of HCl and H 2 O. The reaction of NH 3 with HCl • Write the balanced equation for the reaction of each of the following Bronsted-Lowry acids in water. Label the Acid, Base, Conj. Acid, and Conj. Base •H 2 SO 4 •HSO 4 - 3 O + •C 2 H 3 O 2 H
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4 Strengths of Acids and Bases Dissociation is the process where cations and anions in a compound separate in water.
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course CHM 1046 taught by Professor Wolfe,d during the Spring '08 term at Hillsborough.

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chm1046 Chapter 14 Slides - Properties of Acids An acid is...

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