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chm1046 chapter 11

# chm1046 chapter 11 - 1 Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions • A solution is a homogeneous mixture. • A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent . (solvent is present in the largest amount) • Solutions exist in all three physical states: Solution Composition • We will be concentrating on liquid solutions in this chapter, and for the most part, aqueous solutions. Solution Composition 1. Molarity ( M ) = 2 Mass (weight) percent = moles of solute liters of solution mass of solute 100% × 2. Mass (weight) percent = 3. Mole fraction ( χ A ) = 4. Molality ( m ) = mass of solution 100% × moles total moles in solution A moles of solute kilograms of solvent 2 • The molal concentration of salicylic acid (C 7 H 6 O 3 ) and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) is 17.5 m . If 42g of ethanol were used to make the solution, how many grams of salicylic acid were needed? • The density of a 10.0% m/m solution of NaOH is 1.109 g/cm 3 . Calculate the concentration of this solution in molarity, molality, and mole fraction. Solution Composition • Normality = N = equivalents liters of solution • an equivalent in an acid/base reaction equals the number of H + or OH- ions contained within the acid or base, respectively • Normality = (Molarity)(# acidic protons) 3 Solubility of Liquids and Solids • Polar solvents dissolve in one another. • Nonpolar solvents dissolve in one another. • This is the like dissolves like rule . • Methanol (CH 3 OH) dissolves in water but hexane Methanol (CH 3 OH) dissolves in water but hexane (C 6 H 14 ) does not dissolve in water. • Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) dissolves in toluene (C 7 H 8 ), but water does not dissolve in toluene. Miscible & Immiscible • Polar water and nonpolar oil are immiscible liquids and do not mix to form a solution. Solubility of Liquids and Solids • Ionic compounds, like sodium chloride, are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in nonpolar solvents. • Polar compounds, like table sugar (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in nonpolar solvents. • Nonpolar compounds, like naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ), are soluble in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents....
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chm1046 chapter 11 - 1 Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions...

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