8992polyroot-eng

8992polyroot-eng - TI TI-89/TI-92 Plus/Voyage™ 200...

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Unformatted text preview: TI TI-89/TI-92 Plus/Voyage™ 200 Polynomial Root Finder How To… Start the Application Enter a Problem Solve a Problem Graph a Problem Store Values Navigate Examples Roots of a Third-Degree Polynomial Complex Roots Complex Coefficients More Information Customer Support Notes and Hints Error Messages 2/7/02 © 2001, 2002 Texas Instruments Important Information Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any programs or book materials and makes such materials available solely on an "as-is" basis. In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed any applicable purchase price of this item or material. Moreover, Texas Instruments shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party. Graphing product applications (Apps) are licensed. See the terms of the license agreement for this product. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Apple, Macintosh, Mac, and Mac OS are trademarks of their respective owners. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 2 What is the Polynomial Root Finder Application? The Polynomial Root Finder application (App) calculates numeric roots (zeros) of polynomials using the calculator’s eigenvalue routines. The Polynomial Root Finder App provides a convenient, easy-to-use interface to simplify setting up the problem, solving it, and exploring the solution. You can: • • • • • Edit the coefficients of the polynomial.7 Load a list for the coefficients. Store the solution in a list. Graph the polynomial. Solve up to 30th-order real or complex polynomials. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 3 Entering a Problem Entering data manually 1. Start the Polynomial Root Finder App and select New. 2. Enter the degree of the polynomial. The degree must be an integer between 1 and 30. 3. Press ¸ to display the Coefficients screen. 4. Enter the first coefficient value. You can enter a real or complex value or an expression that resolves to a real or complex value. 5. Press ¸ or D to go to the next coefficient. 6. Continue entering coefficient values. 7. Press ¸ after entering the last coefficient value. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 4 Loading existing data You can load an existing list as all or part of the problem from within the Polynomial Root Finder App by using either of the following methods. • • Press „ and select a folder and list. Press ƒ 1:Load Coefficients and select a folder and list. Editing coefficients 1. If you are on the Solutions screen, press † to display the Coefficients screen. 2. Move the cursor to a coefficient and change its value. 3. Press ¸ to accept the changes. Clearing coefficients Press ƒ 8:Clear All. Starting a new problem Press ƒ 3:New Problem. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 5 Solving Numerically Solutions are always computed numerically, regardless of whether the Exact/Approx mode setting is Auto, Exact, or Approximate. The Polynomial Root Finder App calculates roots numerically by finding the eigenvalues of a corresponding companion matrix. 1. Complete the coefficient entry in the Coefficients screen. You must press ¸ to accept the last entered or changed value. 2. Press ‡ to solve the problem. The numeric values of the roots appear in the Solutions screen. The busy indicator on the status line displays while calculating the solution. Note The roots x 1 . . . x n are displayed according to the Complex Format mode setting. If the mode is Real, complex roots are displayed as Non-Real unless a complex coefficient was entered. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 6 Solving Graphically 1. After entering coefficients, press 2 ˆ (TI-89) or ˆ 1:Open Graph. This option is available from either the Coefficients or Solutions screen. 2. Select the graphing options and press ¸. − Split Screen — Choose 1:Full or 2:Left-Right. (The Top-Bottom option is not available.) − Store Poly to — Choose a y-variable or choose 1:none to graph without storing. − Zoom — Choose 1:ZoomRoots, 2:ZoomStd, 3:ZoomFit, or 4:none. ZoomRoots sets the viewing window based on the solutions found by the Polynomial Root Finder App, relative minimums and maximums, and inflection points. When the graph displays, the standard graph tools such as Zoom, Trace, and Math are available on the tool bar. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 7 Displaying graph with coefficients or solutions In split screen mode, a thick border indicates the active portion. Press 2 a to switch between the graph and the Coefficients or Solutions portion. Graph portion is active Coefficients portion is active To display the Solutions screen with the graph, switch to the Coefficients portion of the split screen, and press ‡. Solutions with graph To return to the Coefficients screen, press † from the Solutions screen. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 8 While in split screen mode, you can change the coefficients and recalculate the solutions. The graph does not automatically update for the new values. To update the graph, select 2 ˆ (TI-89) or ˆ 1:Open Graph from the Coefficients or Solutions screen. Quitting the graph 1. Press 2 a to switch to the Coefficients or Solutions screen. 2. Press 2 ˆ (TI-89) or ˆ 2:Quit Graph. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 9 Storing Once you have entered the coefficients, you can store: • • • All the coefficients to a list. An individual coefficient to a variable. The polynomial to a Y= equation. Once you have calculated the roots, you can store: • • All the roots to a list. An individual root to a variable. To store from either the Coefficients or Solutions screen: • Press … and select one of the following: − 1:Coefficients and select a folder and list name. − 2:Solutions and select a folder and list name. − 3:Poly to Y= Editor and select a y-variable. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 10 To store individual coefficients or roots from the Coefficients or Solutions screen: 1. On the Coefficients screen, place the cursor on the value you want to store. On the Solutions screen, place the cursor on the equal sign (=) of the xi value you want to store. 2. Press §. 3. Enter a variable name and press ¸. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 11 Navigating Within the Polynomial Root Finder App • • • • • ¤ A or ¤ B highlights values on the Coefficients screen. Values can be cut, copied, and pasted. 2 A or 2 B moves the cursor to the beginning or end of a value on the Coefficients screen. 2 C or 2 D moves the cursor up or down one page on the Coefficients or Solutions screen. ¥ C or ¥ D moves the cursor to the first or last value or result on the Coefficients or Solutions screen. 2 a toggles between applications or between split screen portions. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 12 Notes and Hints • Radian angle mode is recommended for complex number calculations if the Complex Format mode setting is Polar. Internally, the TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT converts all entered trigonometry values to radians, but it does not convert values for exponential, logarithmic, or hyperbolic functions. The values of non-real roots are shown on the Solutions screen only if the Complex Format mode setting is Rectangular or Polar. If the format is Real, the Solutions screen displays Non-Real. 0 is not a valid entry for an. If you press ¸ on any other coefficient without entering a value, 0 is entered automatically. If you press ¸ on an without entering a value, 1 is entered automatically. • • TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 13 Example — Roots of a Third-Degree Polynomial Find the roots of 2x3 N 5x2 + x + 3 = 0. 1. Start the Polynomial Root Finder App and select New. 2. Press 3 ¸ for a third-degree polynomial. 3. Enter the coefficients: a 3 = 2, a 2 = M5, a 1 = 1, a 0 = 3. 4. Press ‡ to solve the problem. The busy indicator on the status line displays while the solution is calculated. The values for x1, x2, and x3 are displayed: x 1 = M.618034 x 2 = 1.5 x 3 = 1.61803 TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 14 Example — Complex Roots Find the roots of x3 + x2 + x + 1 = 0. 1. Press 3 and set Angle to Radian and Complex Format to Real. 2. Start the Polynomial Root Finder App and select New. 3. Press 3 ¸ for a third-degree polynomial. 4. Enter the coefficients: a 3 = 1, a 2 = 1, a 1 = 1, a 0 = 1. 5. Press ‡ to solve the problem. The busy indicator on the status line displays while the solution is calculated. The values for x1, x2, and x3 are displayed: x 1 = M1. x 2 = Non-Real x 3 = Non-Real TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 15 Example — Complex Coefficients Find the roots of 15 x3 N 4i x2 + (7+i) x + 2i = 0. 1. Press 3 and set Angle to Radian and Complex Format to Rectangular. 2. Start the Polynomial Root Finder App and select New. 3. Press 3 ¸ for a third-degree polynomial. 4. Enter the coefficients: a 3 = 15, a 2 = M4i, a 1 = 7+i, a 0 = 2i. 5. Press ‡ to solve the problem. The busy indicator on the status line displays while the solution is calculated. The values for x1, x2, and x3 are displayed: x 1 = M.038274+.926765…i x 2 = M.174161N.282031…i x 3 = .212435N.378067…i TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 16 Errors, Error Messages, and Restrictions Message Highest degree polynomial coefficient cannot be zero. All functions are in use. Clear unnecessary functions from the Y= Editor. Memory What To Do You must enter a nonzero value for an. Press ¥ # and clear any unnecessary functions. The Polynomial Root Finder App requires at least 3000 bytes of RAM to run properly. When the amount of available RAM falls below this threshold, the application may display an Error: Memory dialog box and return to the Home screen or simply exit to the Home screen. If this occurs, archive or delete some variables before returning to the application. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 17 Installing the Polynomial Root Finder App Detailed Flash application installation instructions are available from education.ti.com/guides. You will need: • A TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT with the latest Advanced Mathematics Software Operating System. Download a free copy from education.ti.com/softwareupdates. A computer using either Microsoftë Windowsë or Appleë Macintoshë operating system software. A TI-GRAPH LINK™ computer-to-calculator cable, available for purchase from the TI Online Store. Either TI Connect™ software or TI-GRAPH LINK connectivity software for the TI-89 / TI-92 Plus. Download a free copy from education.ti.com/softwareupdates. • • • TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 18 Starting and Quitting the Application Starting the Polynomial Root Finder App The instructions in this guidebook refer to this Flash application only. For help using this product, refer to the comprehensive guidebook at education.ti.com/guides. 1. Press Œ and select Polynomial Root Finder. 2. Select the problem type from the menu. − Current returns to the screen you were on when you left the Polynomial Root Finder App. − Open lets you select an existing list to use as the coefficients of the polynomial. − New creates a new problem. Quitting the Polynomial Root Finder App Press 2 K from any screen. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 19 Deleting an Application Deleting an application removes it from the handheld device and increases space for other applications. Before deleting an application, consider storing it on a computer for reinstallation later. 1. Quit the application. 2. Press 2 ° to display the VAR-LINK [ALL] screen. 3. Press 2 ‰ (TI-89) or ‰ to display the list of installed applications. 4. Select the application you want to delete. 5. Press ƒ 1:Delete. The VAR-LINK delete confirmation dialog box displays. 6. Press ¸ to delete the application. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 20 Texas Instruments (TI) Support and Service Information For general information E-mail: Phone: [email protected] 1-800-TI-CARES (1-800-842-2737) For US, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only education.ti.com Home page: For technical questions Phone: 1-972-917-8324 For product (hardware) service Customers in the US, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands: Always contact TI Customer Support before returning a product for service. All other customers: Refer to the leaflet enclosed with your product (hardware) or contact your local TI retailer/distributor. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 21 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS LICENSE AGREEMENT BY INSTALLING THIS SOFTWARE YOU AGREE TO ABIDE BY THE FOLLOWING PROVISIONS. 1. LICENSE: Texas Instruments Incorporated (“TI”) grants you a license to use and copy the software program(s) (“License Materials”) contained on this diskette/CD/web site. You, and any subsequent user, may only use the Licensed Materials on Texas Instruments calculator products. RESTRICTIONS: You may not reverse-assemble or reverse-compile the Licensed Materials. You may not sell, rent, or lease copies that you make. COPYRIGHT: The Licensed Materials and any accompanying documentation are copyrighted. If you make copies, do not delete the copyright notice, trademark, or protective notices from the copies. WARRANTY: TI does not warrant that the Licensed Materials or documentation will be free from errors or that they will meet your specific requirements. THE LICENSED MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” TO YOU OR ANY SUBSEQUENT USER. LIMITATIONS: TI makes no warranty or condition, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding the Licensed Materials. IN NO EVENT SHALL TI OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE OR DATA, OR INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS, WHETHER THE ALLEGED DAMAGES ARE LABELED IN TORT, CONTRACT, OR INDEMNITY. SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY. 2. 3. 4. 5. IF YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THIS LICENSE, CLICK ON THE “ACCEPT” BUTTON; IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THIS LICENSE, CLICK ON THE “DECLINE” BUTTON TO EXIT THE INSTALLATION. TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 22 Page Reference This PDF document contains electronic bookmarks for on-screen navigation. If you print this document, use the page numbers below to find specific topics. Important Information............................................................................................. 2 What is the Polynomial Root Finder Application?.................................................. 3 Entering a Problem ................................................................................................ 4 Solving Numerically ............................................................................................... 6 Solving Graphically ................................................................................................ 7 Storing.................................................................................................................. 10 Navigating Within the Polynomial Root Finder App ............................................. 12 Notes and Hints ................................................................................................... 13 Example — Roots of a Third-Degree Polynomial ................................................ 14 Example — Complex Roots................................................................................. 15 Example — Complex Coefficients ....................................................................... 16 Errors, Error Messages, and Restrictions ............................................................ 17 Installing the Polynomial Root Finder App........................................................... 18 Starting and Quitting the Application ................................................................... 19 Deleting an Application ........................................................................................ 20 Texas Instruments (TI) Support and Service Information.................................... 21 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS LICENSE AGREEMENT.............................................. 22 TI-89 / TI-92 Plus / Voyage™ 200 PLT Polynomial Root Finder App Page 23 ...
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