6.1 Chapter 12 Liquids and Solids (1 per page)

6.1 Chapter 12 Liquids and Solids (1 per page) - Chapter 12...

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hapter 12: Liquids Solids and Chapter 12: Liquids, Solids and Intermolecular Forces
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Objectives Understand how intermolecular forces ive rise to liquid properties: give rise to liquid properties: surface tension, wetting, capillary rise, iscosity viscosity Examine phase transitions enthalpy changes, vapor pressure, boiling, melting, sublimation. Interpretation of Phase Diagrams
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2- Intermolecular Forces 12 1 Intermolecular Forces hat is different What is different about the Br 2 olecules in the molecules in the liquid phase and the as phase? Br 2 gas phase?
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12-1 Intermolecular Forces Molecules in the gas phase are essentially independent. Very few interactions ith each other. r with each other. Br 2
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12-1 Intermolecular Forces Molecules in liquid hase governed by phase governed by attractive interactions etween each other between each other and with container. r Br 2
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12-1 Intermolecular Forces Cohesive: like olecules. molecules. Adhesive: unlike molecules. ohesive Cohesive Adhesive r Br 2
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12-1 Intermolecular Forces
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12-2 Some Properties of Liquids Cohesive interactions hold drops of liquid together. Cause them to be spherical.
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12-2 Surface Tension Molecules in the terior can form a interior can form a maximum number f vourable surface interior of favourable interactions ohesive). (cohesive). Molecules at the terface with a interface with a gas (like air) can rm fewer form fewer interactions.
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12-2 Surface Tension Much more surface interior empty space in the gas, less opportunity to interact.
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12-2 Surface Tension Molecules would prefer to be in surface interior the interior than at the surface. Liquid will adopt the shape with e smallest the smallest possible surface rea area. The sphere has the lowest surface area to volume ratio of any shape.
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12-2 Surface Tension It takes energy to increase the surface area of a liquid. ergy Surface Tension: area energy 2 2 0 8 O H 10 28 . 7 2 m J (20 C, decreases with temperature)
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12-2 Surface Tension takes energy to It takes energy to increase the urface area of a surface area of a balloon. he surface of the The surface of the balloon is stretched e under tension i.e. under tension. Surfaces of liquids are similar.
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12-2 Wetting Liquid at the solid interface interacts with the solid. Strength depends on gp which liquid and solid are involved. Adhesive interactions. Adhesive
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12-2 Wetting Greased glass plate. Few favourable interactions between water and grease. Interface with solid is similar to interface with air.
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12-2 Wetting Cohesive interactions > Adhesive interactions Drops of liquid are close to spherical. Water does not wet a greased surface.
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12-2 Wetting Clean glass plate.
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6.1 Chapter 12 Liquids and Solids (1 per page) - Chapter 12...

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