7.1 Chapter 13 Solutions (1 per page)

7.1 Chapter 13 Solutions (1 per page) - Chapter 13:...

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hapter 13: Solutions and their Physical Chapter 13: Solutions and their Physical Properties
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Objectives Calculate concentration using different nits. ut s Study thermodynamics of solution and solubilities of liquids, solids and gases q, g in liquid solvents. Understand the process of distillation: p Raoult’s Law, azeotropes. Calculate colligative properties of gp p electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions: freezing point, boiling point, osmotic pressure.
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Solution: A homogeneous mixture of two or more ubstances. substances.
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13-1 Types of Solutions gaseous Air: N 2 ,O 2 , Ar, CO 2 , Ne, CH 4 , He, r H e Kr, H 2, Xe liquid Seawater: H 2 O, Cl - ,Na + , SO 4 2 , g 2+ a 2+ + CO - r - r 2+ l - Mg , Ca , K , HCO 3 , Br , Sr , Fl olid solid red brass: Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn, Fe, Cd
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13-2 Solution Concentration Different measures of how much solute is dissolved in how much solvent. mall amount of solute: dilute small amount of solute: dilute large amount of solute: concentrated
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13-2 Solution Concentration Mole Fraction ( ) oles of solute tal moles of moles of solute ÷ total moles of solution =0.5 eans half the molecules are A A 0.5 means half the molecules are A. Molarity ( M=moles L -1 ) oles of solute ÷ ters of solution moles of solute liters of solution Molality ( m =moles kg -1 ) moles of solute ÷ mass of solvent (kg) not affected by thermal expansion/contraction of solvent Others: see textbook
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13-3 Intermolecular Forces and the Solution process ure A has only Pure A has only A-A interactions. Pure B has only B-B interactions. A solution of A & B has A-A, B-B and A-B interactions.
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution dissociate olute mix solvent solute issociate solute & solute dissociate solvent endothermic exothermic
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution Overall change in enthalpy can be positive, negative, or lose to zero. close to zero.
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution dissociate olute ix solvent issociate solute mix solvent & solute dissociate solvent overall exothermic H < 0 forces between unlike molecules stronger than those between like molecules
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution orming a solution of Forming a solution of water with pure mineral cids (like H O is highly acids (like H 2 SO 4 ) is highly exothermic.
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution ALWAYS add acid to water, NOT water to acid. the solution can get extremely hot extremely fast. Water has high heat capacity. Better to have boiling 10% acid solution than boiling 0% acid solution 90% acid solution.
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13-3 Enthalpy of Solution dissociate olute mix solvent solute issociate solute & solute dissociate solvent H 0
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13-3 Ideal Solutions H is close to zero when forces between ke and unlike molecules are very similar like and unlike molecules are very similar.
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7.1 Chapter 13 Solutions (1 per page) - Chapter 13:...

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