8.1 Chapter 16 Acids and Bases (1 per page)

8.1 Chapter 16 Acids and Bases (1 per page) - Chapter 16:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–22. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 16: Acids and Bases
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Objectives Compare Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry nd Lewis theories of acids & bases and Lewis theories of acids & bases. Study strong versus weak acids & ases bases Define ionization constants K a & K b . Calculate pH, pK a , pK b . Study polyprotic acids. yp yp Molecular determinants of acid & ase strength base strength.
Background image of page 2
16-1 Arrhenius Theory Svante Arrhenius 859 927 1859-1927 acids: H + donor base: OH - donor neutralization: H + + OH - H 2 O
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-1 Arrhenius Theory Consider the neutralization reaction between HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq): HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O aOH(s) H q) + Na q) H 2 O NaOH(s) OH - (aq) + Na + (aq) H 2 O(l) NaCl(aq)
Background image of page 4
16-1 Arrhenius Theory + - hydrogen atom = proton + electron ydrogen ion = proton hydrogen ion = proton +
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
From Sections 5-1 and 16-3 + ns do not actually exist in H ions do not actually exist in aqueous solution. ombine with water to form the Combine with water to form the hydronium ion: H 3 O + + +
Background image of page 6
16-1 Arrhenius Theory igh concentration of hydronium High concentration of hydronium ions H 3 O + : acidic High concentration of hydroxide ions OH - : basic
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-1 Arrhenius Theory Works well for many systems, but there is a small problem: How do you explain the fact that ammonia H behaves as a base? (NH 3 ) behaves as a base? Where is the OH?
Background image of page 8
16-1 Arrhenius Theory Almost a good answer: NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 OH(aq) NH 4 OH(aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Provides an explanation for OH - and asic properties basic properties. Postulates existence of NH 4 OH - not ctually observed unsatisfactory actually observed, unsatisfactory
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory (1923) Johannes Nicolaus Thomas Martin Brønsted Lowry cids: proton donors Acids: proton donors Bases: proton acceptors A definition widely used today
Background image of page 10
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory Substances that are acids/bases according to Arrhenius Theory are also acids/bases according to Brønsted-Lowry Theory.
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory Arrhenius treatment of NH 3 NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 OH NH 4 + + OH - r nstead- owry eatment of NH Brønstead Lowry treatment of NH 3 NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH -
Background image of page 12
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory - + H H + H - NH 3 H 2 O NH 4 OH ydrogen ion is positively charged; Hydrogen ion is positively charged; transfer generates charged ions.
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - In the forward direction, NH 3 accepts a proton: base Water donates a proton: acid
Background image of page 14
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - In the reverse direction, NH 4 + donates a proton: acid OH - accepts a proton: base
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory onjugate pair conjugate pair NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - conjugate pair
Background image of page 16
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory NH 4 + is the conjugate acid of NH 3. NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - OH - is the conjugate base f H of H 2 O
Background image of page 17

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory Sometimes water can act as a base: H OOH + H H OO - H + CH 3 COOH + H 2 O CH 3 COO + H 3 O acetic acid: inegar vinegar
Background image of page 18
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory - + CH COOH H O CH COO - H O + 3 2 3 3
Background image of page 19

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory CH 3 COOH + H 2 O CH 3 COO - + H 3 O + acid base base acid
Background image of page 20
Definition cid: H
Background image of page 21

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 22
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course SCIENCE CHEM 120 taught by Professor Fenster during the Winter '11 term at McGill.