Chapter 7 Learning - cChapter 7 Learning Learning Is a...

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cChapter 7 Learning Learning Is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency that occurs as a result of practice or observation? Learning cant be observed, it must be inferred from an action that suggests learning has occurred. Process and events usually present when learning occurs include: A stimulus and a response; motivation (the goals-internal and external to the organism—that cause & support most behavior); association b/w stimulus & response that develops if they occur close together, or contiguously in time n space; the law of effect. Classical Conditioning-originally developed by Pavlov; involves four events Unconditioned stimulus(US)-an event that always produces certain response; Unconditioned Response(UR)-a behavior brought about by US; Conditioned Stimulus(CS)-any event which, prior to conditioning, doesn’t produce any response resembling the UR; a Conditioned Response(CR)- the response produced by the CS, neutral before conditioning, but resembling the UR after conditioning ***Classical conditioning is done by repeated pairing of the CS and US, using a positive or a negative reinforce. Trial and Error Learning-gradual elimination of errors where cues for the correct solution of a problem are all present at once(puzzle box) or presents one at a time(maze) Operant Conditioning-involves us of an enclosed chamber called a Skinner box, the Method of Successive Approximations is a oft-used training technique based on shaping, a process in which an organism is reinforced for performing responses more and more similar to the desired one; involves increasing the frequency of a behavior, either by using a positive reinforce, or by removing a negative reinforce or decreasing its intensity; involves reinforcing emitted behaviors; Observational learning or imitation seems to occur mainly b/c of its efficiency Reinforcement is one important process involved in many types of conditioning: Continuous reinforcement giving a reinforce for every correct response; partial reinforcement schedules include fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval Reinforcements can be primary essential to the well being of the organism or secondary learned and not necessary to survival. Common factors in classical and operant conditioning
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Primary and secondary reinforcement; need to time a reinforcement correctly in order to increase the frequency of a conditioned response, extinction, or the fading away of a response that is no longer reinforced partial reinforcement effect suggests that extinction occurs more slowly when reinforcement has not given each time the response is made; generalization or response to stimuli are similar but not identical to a previously conditioned stimulus; discrimination or ability to respond to one stimulus and not to another that is similar. Defining learning
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYC 1300 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '09 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter 7 Learning - cChapter 7 Learning Learning Is a...

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