Chapter 9 Language and Communication

Chapter 9 Language and Communication - Chapter 9 Language...

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Chapter 9 Language and Communication Language and communication Language: an abstract system of symbols and meanings Hypotheses about how we store information in speaking and understanding: Reappearance Utilization Whereas performance is an account of what we actually do, competence refers to our language potential Four common features of all languages: Meaningful terms Arbitrary assignment of symbols to concepts Openness or productivity Sound-meaning link In processing language, speakers must share agreement on sound, rules of organization and meaning Four capacities necessary for language to develop as a means of communication Brain capabilities Speech mechanism Abstract reasoning ability An inherited urge to use these capacities Communication-passing of information from one organism to another using signals Transmitter Signal Channel Receiver
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Some nonverbal communications cues that are part of the total communication process Paralanguage Proxemics Skin sensitivity Language Language is one of the most sophisticated human skills which allows us to communicate with others Benefits of language Education (reading) in printed form Freedom of expression Distinguishes humans from animals How is language organized? Theories on how information is stored and retrieved to enable speaking and writing Reappearance: language is stored much like a memory which when we recall, it simply reappears Utilization: views memory as a process of reconstruction; we store only a few element s of an event as separate bones that need to reunited. Process of reconstruction mirrors actual strategies we use internally as we listen and speak. Out total vocabulary is rather limited, however the supply of sentences is almost infinite. Psycholinguists: scientist who study language What is language? Language: an abstract system of symbols and meanings. This system includes the rules (grammar) that relate symbols ad meanings so that we can communicate with each other Symbol: anything that stands for anything else Performance: an account of what we actually do or say
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Competence: the ability we each seem to have to generate and interpret sentences according to rules The essence of language Features shared by all languages Meaningfulness: despite changes in pronunciation, loudness, frequency, location, or anything else, for speakers of the same language a word is still associated with the same concept or object. Arbitrariness: the relation bw a symbol and the thing or concept to which it refers is arbitrary. Each concept is randomly assigned a particular symbol Openness using a limited number of words, combining them in different orders yields new meanings-our language thus is productive Sound-meaning link: the meaning of each concept is permanently linked to a particular word-it is printed and pronounced (sounded)the same way
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYC 1300 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '09 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter 9 Language and Communication - Chapter 9 Language...

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