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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Motivation Motivations Motivations Influences many aspects of our life and helps explain different causes of behavior Aids survival, accounts for variations in any individual’s behavior, and guides our actions Operates in a cycle Homeostasis involves maintaining various bodily processes within a narrow range of acceptability. Deviations form that norm lead to automatic corrective actions Our body reacts as it becomes motivated Human motives Physiological motives(hunger n thirst) push us toward a goal Mixed motives involve both physiological and learned aspects (pain and sex) Learned (psychological) motives (achievement and fear): attractiveness of a goal pulls us toward it Responding to learned goals requires The availability of a response An expectancy of success Goal worth pursuing An environment in which to do so Abraham Maslow has proposed a theory of five major needs, arranged in a sequence in which they arise and can or must be satisfied, the highest being self actualization What is motivation? Motivation is a major influence that is always operating in our daily lives Motivation does two things Activates behavior, or provides the energy for it Directs the activated behavior toward a goal Many different causes of human behavior—inherited mechanisms and learned responses are two. However even w inheritance and learning held constant we still see differences in behavior. Motivation helps us to explain these variations in behavior both within individuals and among different people in the same situation Motivation involves a very complex combination of internal stimuli as well as many external cues Idea of efficiency related to the concept of motivation We can use weak stimuli to guide strong behaviors and we can respond to other stimuli and stop behaviors that might cause us injury Operant conditioners explain motivated behaviors just on the basis of rewards Three important elements in all motivated behavior The events that cause a need for the behavior to occur: these events may be inherited, learned or a combination of both Internal result: this may be a drive or urge, a purpose, or motive A goal (sometimes be called incentive) Going in cycles Motivated behavior relies on the operation of three elements: needs, drives, and goals The operation of these elements is often said to be circular or repetitive, ie they operate in a cycle, the sequence of events in a cycle is constant—they always occur in exactly the same order Needs Internal state that motivated our behavior May be physiological(hunger or thirst) May also be a learned needs Drives and goals Aroused state of an organism Drives are aroused by depriving an organism of the goal objective or incentive it needs to satisfy itself Positive goals are those for which you strive(food or water) Negative goals are those that you t ry to avoid or escape(pain)...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYC 1300 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '09 term at University of Houston.
- Fall '09
- The Land