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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Emotions Emotions Emotion: a state of arousal and an attempt to label it Our level of arousal directly affects how we behave • Moderate levels of arousal=most efficient behavior • Low or high levels of arousal=inefficient behavior Approaches to studying behavior Studying and labeling photographs of posed facial emotions Analyzing the words we use in describing emotions Emotions are entirely learned as we develop Stress: occurs when we perceive that our well being is endangered, and we devote bodily resources to correcting the problem General adaptation syndrome: suggests we proceed through three stages when stressed • Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion Boredom: any state in which we seek higher levels of excitation than our current one Love a learned pattern of responses Theories of emotion: Activation theory: assumes simply that our level of arousal is crucial to the emotion we experience Attribution theory: assumes that emotions result from the combined effects of our level of arousal and the interpretation we make of that arousal Opponents-process theory: assumes that we try to keep our level of emotional arousal balanced What is emotion? All emotions share two things in common They’re motivational They’re related to our level of arousal Emotion: a conscious experience involving participative (private) feelings, physiological arousal, expressive reactions, and observable activities related to the experience Emotions play a large role in guiding all our behavior Inherited inclinations, learning, and reasoning combine with motivated or emotional urges to control much of what we do and the efficiency with which we direct our behavior. The effects of arousal Donald Hebb: Canadian psychologist who presented ideas of the relationship bw our level of arousal and the ability of that arousal to guide our behavior Dealing with stressful situations: It is thought that only about 15% of all humans show the correct behavior in dealing with stressful situations The middle 70% show varying degrees of disorganization From 10 to 25% (depending on the source of the arousal) may show totally inappropriate behavior ranging from panic, to incorrect responses, to no response at all High levels of arousal can severely disrupt our behavior Efficient behavior Very low or very high levels of arousal provide poor guidance: With very low arousal the messages are too weak-nothing occurs to you as a response With very high arousal the signals may be too strong-too many good responses As our level of arousal increases, our responses initially become more efficient, but too much arousal leads to declining efficiency A moderate level of arousal causes us to be quite efficient in our behavior The extent of disruption caused by comparable degrees of arousal may be very different for different emotions Dimensions of emotions...
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- Fall '09
- arousal underlies emotion, arousal Opponents-process theory, body motor arousal, Arousal Verbal labels