Chapter 12 Testing - Chapter 12 Testing Testing Assumptions...

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Chapter 12 Testing Testing Assumptions underlying testing Standardized norms Reliability Validity Objectivity and efficiency Ethical principles guiding the giving and interpreting of psychological tests Types of tests in career and vocational counseling Interest tests: help people identify potential careers Achievement tests: most widely used, and possibly also the most widely abused, test now available that stress content validity Aptitude test: used to project a persons potential success in future activities, stressing predictive validity Intelligence defined in terms of the processes used to measure it Different views of intelligence Composed of a single general factor, clusters of abilities, many individual skills Classic tests of intelligence Based on the assumptions that intelligence changes with age and that as children grow up they are capable of doing more complex tasks Modern test of intelligence Based on more recent conceptualizations of intelligence Placed more emphasis on cognitive processes and evolutionary pressures Designed to assess humans relative strengths in various cognitive and performance skills needed to survive in our everyday world Intelligence quotient: calculated from our measured mental age and our chronological age Factors impacting intellectual development Heredity and environmental factors Certain kinds of mental and physical activities lead toward increasing our intelligence Birth order and family size Measuring personality Direct observation and interviews Questionnaires and self-reports Projective tests Assumptions for a test Individual differences among people are most frequently assessed by various tests of interests, achievement and aptitude, intelligence and personality Individual differences may result from our hereditary background or from the environment in which we grew up or live in
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Most individual differences result from the joint impact of both heredity and environment Our age, our sex, our race, our mental skills and abilities, or even the prior training we’ve had may also cause such differences. Statistical norms: human performance data are plotted on a graph, results often fall into what is called a normal distribution: most individual scores are grouped near the middle=most of us are average or close to average in many abilities Further from the midpoint of the distribution, the fewer individual we find Test measuring individual differences Test a systematic procedure for comparing the responses of two or more persons to the same series of stimuli Tests are used to present the same items to many people and to see how their performances compare Elements of a good test: Based on norms High reliability and validity Objectivity and efficiency ethics Statistical norms A performance score is useless information by itself-it only gains meaning when we
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSYC 1300 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '09 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter 12 Testing - Chapter 12 Testing Testing Assumptions...

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