Chapter 13 Personality

Chapter 13 Personality - Chapter 13 Personality:Theroies...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Personality:Theroies Personality: Theories Psychologists are mainly interested in personality to Explain why people with similar heredity, experience, and motivation may react differently in the same situation Explain why people with different heredity, past experiences, and/or motivation may nevertheless react similarly in the same situation. Techniques of study Idiographic Nomothetic The study of personality involves many aspects of human behavior Theories of personality Organize what we do know Stimulate new research Formally specify a view of personality Four groups of theories have been developed in the past century Trait: phrenology, typology, and the factor theory Psychoanalytic: two central elements ->psychic energy (libido) and an unconscious [Freud, Jung and Adler] tri-partite structure of our personality: id, ego and superego Behavioral or social learning Dollard and Miller: stimulus-response theory (drive, cue, response and reinforcement) B.F. Skinner-personality as a behavior Albert Bandura-personality explained through the interaction of behavior, environment, and our views of self-efficacy Humanistic views (self-growth theories) Carl Rogers: person-centered theories Abraham Maslow: holistic theory emphasizing human needs What is personality? Most people use them personality for one of two purposes Labeling an obvious feature (sweetness, introverted, shy, aggressive); identifying a person of the single characteristic that is most obvious To indicate a more general kind of skill in representing ourselves to others; a general label for the amount of social skill and finesse Psychologists usage of personality How do psychologists define personality? Determined largely by (1) the personality theory in discussion, (2) what elements of personality are being emphasized, and (3) what techniques of study will be applied Study of personality attempts to account for what we cannot predict from our knowledge of your prior learning and inheritance as they act in combination with your current motivational state Critical factors: inherited and learned behaviors Personality: the dynamic organization within an individual of those systems that determine his or her characteristic behavior and thought Elements of personality Important aspects of personality: Stable characteristics: aspects of a person that are enduring and constant Any trait identified with personality must occur repeatedly and consistently; response should occur in a wide variety of circumstances Each theory of personality is based on the assumption that we are each unique Techniques of study Studying personality In order for an aspect of personality to be of interest it must occur widely Psychologists focus on universal characteristic by studying unique examples oin an individual case Two techniques of study...
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Chapter 13 Personality - Chapter 13 Personality:Theroies...

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